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King Arthur. Objectives. Use prior knowledge to brainstorm definitions of terms associated with the legend of King Arthur.

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objectives
Objectives
  • Use prior knowledge to brainstorm definitions of terms associated with the legend of King Arthur.
  • Participate in class discussions about the popularity of King Arthur over time and the way that the people, places, and things associated with King Arthur have become symbolic to people around the world.
  • Identify the historical background, appeal and value, Arthurian hero and principal characters.
essential questions
Essential Questions
  • Who is King Arthur?
  • What is the historical background?
  • What is the appeal and value?
  • Who is the Arthurian hero?
  • Who are the principal characters?
warm up activity
Warm-Up Activity
  • Please get into groups of FOUR.
  • Grab ONE piece of paper per group.
  • Work together quickly and quietly to write down what you know about each of the words revealed on the next few slides.
  • Work quiet enough so other groups will not hear and copy your information.
  • I will reveal the words one at a time.
  • Groups have 60 seconds to record as much information/brainstorming as they can about each word.
who is king arthur
Who is King Arthur?
  • We don’t know. #IDK
  • Tales of King Arthur, the great legendary hero of Britain, have been popular for more than 800 years.
  • Scholars have been unable to learn much about the real Arthur because no contemporary accounts of his deeds exist.
  • Probably a Welsh cavalry general named Artorius, who led 12 attacks against invading Saxons between A.D. 500 and 517
the sword in the stone1
The Sword in the Stone
  • A novel by T.H. White published in 1938
  • Initially stand-alone work but now first part of The Once and Future King
  • A fantasy of the boyhood of King Arthur
  • Combines elements of legend, history, fantasy and comedy
  • Walt Disney made it an animated film and BBC adapted it to radio
  • In our version, “Whoever pulls out this sword is the lawfully born king of Britain.”
excalibur1
Excalibur
  • Legendary sword of King Arthur
  • Separate from the Sword in the stone
  • Our version: Given to King Arthur from the Lady of the Lake
  • “Lady, what sword is being held above that water by that arm? I wish that it were mine, for I have no sword.”
  • “King Arthur, that is my sword, Excalibur, but I will give it to you if you will give me a gift when I ask for it.” (Rosenberg, 433).
knights of the round table
Knights of the Round Table
  • King Arthur’s famed table where he and his knights congregate
  • First described in 1155 by Wace
  • Briefly mentioned in our version
  • Given to King Arthur as a wedding gift to bring peace among all of his knights, since the table has neither a head nor a foot
  • “Whenever the knights meet, their thrones, their services, and their relationship to one another will be equal.” (Rosenberg, 433).
sir lancelot
Sir Lancelot
  • One of the Knights of the Round Table in Arthurian legend
  • King Arthur’s greatest champion
  • Our version: Son of King Ban of Benwick; greatest knight of the Round Table; one of Arthur’s two favorite knights; champion of Guinevere and her favorite knight
slide15

Please return to seats for foursquare note-taking.

Historical Background

Appeal and Value

Code of Conduct for Knights

Principal Characters

historical background
Historical Background
  • The Legend of King Arthur
    • No formal written records about Arthur
    • Scholars think the real Arthur was a Welsh cavalry general named Artorius- 12 successful attacks against the invading Saxons from 500-517 CE
    • Geoffrey Ashe, prominent Arthur Scholar, identifies Arthur with Riothamus, a Roman soldier who completed a campaign in Gaul around 454 CE
historical background1
Historical Background

1) Geoffrey of Monmouth (1136 CE)

  • Literature rather than history
  • Created the idea of Arthur as a British king
  • Added Guinevere and Merlin
  • Added the aspects of Arthur’s unusual birth and death
historical background2
Historical Background

2) Chrétien de Troyes (1175 CE)

  • Author of Chevrefoil-a poem about Tristan and Isolde
  • Added courtly love, knights as heroes and lovers
  • Lancelot-epic poem-introduces the love affair between Lancelot and Guinevere for the first time
historical background3
Historical Background

3) MorteArthure (14thc. CE)

  • British piece
  • Focus was on Arthur as a proud warrior and great hero
  • Nationalistic perspective
  • NO courtly love, chivalry or court of knights
  • Gawain is the #1 Knight, Lancelot is ancillary
historical background4
Historical Background

4) Sir Thomas Malory (1485)

  • Pulled from Geoffrey of Monmouth and Chrétien de Troyes previous works
  • Arthur is known as one of the greatest world rulers, comparable to Alexander the Great.
  • Arthur does not return to Britain until he is crowned Emperor of Rome.
  • Introduction of Mordred’s treachery, Guinevere’s infidelity and collapse of the Round Table
appeal and value
Appeal and Value
  • Very complex and varied
  • Appeals to almost every taste
  • 19th century versions: Mark Twain’s A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court and Lord Tennyson’s Idylls of the King
  • 20th century: John Steinbeck, T.H. White and Mary Stewart
  • THEME: Conflict between personal desires and responsibility to others
code of conduct for knights
Code of Conduct for Knights
  • Loyal to the king
  • Loyal to relatives and friends
  • Loyal to the lady he loved
  • Courteous and gentle in the presence of women
  • Courageous at all times
  • Be a man of honor
  • The challenge to Knights is to balance all of the above.
exit slip
Exit Slip
  • Please answer the following briefly:
    • 1) What they would like to learn more about King Arthur’s legend?
    • 2) What was one new piece of information about King Arthur’s legend you learned today?