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Warm-Up Nov 11

Warm-Up Nov 11. 1. The 18 th Amendment A. established Prohibition B. repealed Prohibition C. Guaranteed Women the right to vote D. Guaranteed African-Americans the right to vote. Warm-Up Nov 12. 2. John Scopes was put on trial for

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Warm-Up Nov 11

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  1. Warm-Up Nov 11 1. The 18th Amendment A. established Prohibition B. repealed Prohibition C. Guaranteed Women the right to vote D. Guaranteed African-Americans the right to vote

  2. Warm-Up Nov 12 2. John Scopes was put on trial for A. violating Prohibition laws B. being the leader of the KKK C. Teaching creationism D. Teaching evolution

  3. Rural and Urban Differences • 1922–1929, nearly 2 million people left farms & towns each year • Largest cities were New York, Chicago, Philadelphia - 65 other cities with 100,000 people or more

  4. Rural and Urban Differences • In 1920s - people caught between rural & urban cultures - close ties, hard work, strict morals of small towns - anonymous crowds, moneymaking, pleasure seeking of cities

  5. The Prohibition Experiment • 1920 - 18th Amendment launched Prohibition Era • supported by religious groups in rural South & West • Said alcohol made workers inefficient & increased violence • Prohibition -production, sale, transportation of alcohol illegal • Government didn’t budget enough money to enforce the law • People found ways to get around prohibition

  6. The Prohibition Experiment • Speakeasies (hidden saloons, nightclubs) become fashionable • People built their own stills to distill liquor (Bathtub Gin) • Prescriptions for alcohol & sacramental wine skyrocketed (legal) • Bootleggers - smuggled alcohol from surrounding countries

  7. Organized Crime • Prohibition contributed to organized crime in major cities - Wanted to make money off illegal liquor • Underground gangs battled for control of the booze racket • 1923 – Al Capone emerged as leader of organized crime • Controlled Chicago liquor business by killing competitors • By mid-1920s - only 19% of population supported Prohibition • 1933 – 21st Amendment repealed18th Amendment

  8. Science and Religion Clash • Fundamentalism – movement based on literal interpretation of Bible • Fundamentalists skeptical of some scientific discoveries & theories - Rejected theory of evolution • Believed all important knowledge could be found in Bible

  9. Science and Religion Clash • Fundamentalist preachers led religious revivals in South & West - One of the moist powerful revivalists was Billy Sunday - Aimee Semple McPherson used showmanship while preaching on radio • 1920s – Fundamentalists began to call for laws prohibiting the teaching of evolution

  10. The Scopes Trial • 1925 - Tennessee passed law making it a crime to teach evolution • American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) backed John T. Scopes challenge of law • Clarence Darrow defended Scopes - Most famous trial lawyer of day, defends Scopes

  11. The Scopes Trial • Fundamentalist William Jennings Bryan served as special prosecutor • Scopes trial - debated evolution, role of science, & religion in public schools & American society - Trial was a national sensation - Thousands attended

  12. The Scopes Trial • Darrow called Bryan as an expert witness on the bible • Bryan admitted the Bible was open to interpretation • Scopes still found guilty & fined $100 • Tennessee Supreme court later changed verdict on technicality • Law outlawing the teaching of evolution remained in effect

  13. Young Women Change the Rules • Flapper - emancipated young woman, adopts new fashions & attitudes • Wore short bright colored dresses (1inch above the knees) • Skinned tone stockings • Cut their hair in boyish bobs & dyed it jet black • Went to events without chaperones

  14. Women Shed Old Roles at Home and at Work • Employers replaced female workers with men after WWI • Female college graduates became teachers, nurses, & librarians • Many women became clerical workers as demand rose • Some became sales clerks, or factory workers • Few became managers& were always paid less than men

  15. The Changing Family • Birthrate dropped partly due to more birth-control information - Margaret Sanger was arrested for passing out birth control information - She said that women couldn’t be free until they could choose - Most people considered birth control immoral - 1918 – New York Supreme Court said it was legal for doctors to give out birth control information

  16. Expanding News Coverage • Mass media shaped mass culture & took advantage of increased literacy • By 1914 - hundreds of local newspapers were replaced by national chains • Gave readers more expansive coverage form the big cities • 1920s - mass-circulation magazines thrived • 1922 - Reader’s Digest founded • 1923 - Time founded

  17. Radio Comes of Age • Radio was most powerful communications medium of 1920s • Connected the whole country • Networks provided shared national experience - Enabled people to hear the news as it happened

  18. America Chases New Heroes and Old Dreams • 1920s - Many people had extra money & leisure time to enjoy it • Crowds attended sporting events • Athletes were glorified by mass media

  19. America Chases New Heroes and Old Dreams • Babe Ruth • Andrew Rube Foster – Founded the Negro National League • Gertrude Ederle – 1st women to swim the English Channel • Helen Wills – Pro tennis star

  20. Entertainment and the Arts • Silent movies were already a national pastime • 1927 – The Jazz Singer was released - 1st major movie with sound • 1928 – Walt Disney’s Steamboat Willie was released - 1st animated movie with sound • Introduction of sound led millions to attend every week “talkies”

  21. Entertainment and the Arts • Playwrights & composers broke away from European traditions • George Gershwin merged traditional elements with jazz to create American music

  22. Entertainment and the Arts • Painters portrayed American realities & dreams - Georgia O’Keeffe painted intensely colored canvases of New York

  23. Writers of the 1920s • Sinclair Lewis was first American to win Nobel Prize for literature - Criticizes Americans conformity & materialism • F. Scott Fitzgerald revealed negative side of era’s gaiety & freedom

  24. Writers of the 1920s • Writers soured by American culture & war settled in Europe - Saw little hope in the future - called Lost Generation • Expatriate Ernest Hemingway introduced simple & tough, American style - Criticized glorification of war

  25. African-American Voices in the 1920s • 1910–1920 - Great Migration of thousands of African Americans - Moved from South to Northern cities • By 1920 - over 40% of African Americans live in cities

  26. African-American Voices in the 1920s • Racial tensions escalated in North • Summer 1919 – About 25 urban race riots took place • African-Americans continue to migrate in the 1920s

  27. African-American Goals • 1900 - National Association for the Advancement of Colored People founded (NAACP) - Protested racial violence - W.E.B. Du Bois led parade of 10,000 men in New York to protest violence

  28. Marcus Garvey and the UNIA • 1914 - Marcus Garvey founded Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) - believed African Americans should build separate society • Garvey promoted black pride, black businesses, & a back to Africa movement

  29. Marcus Garvey and the UNIA • Encouraged his followers to return to Africa & & help the native people throw off the white colonial oppressors • Mid 1920s - Movement dwindled after Garvey was convicted of mail fraud • He left behind a legacy for newly awakened black pride, economic independence, & reverence for Africa

  30. The Harlem Renaissance Flowers in New York • Many African Americans migrated to Harlem - Neighborhood on the Upper West Side of New York’s Manhattan Island • 1920s – Harlem became world’s largest black urban area - People from U.S. & Caribbean • Harlem Renaissance - A literary & artistic movement celebrating African-American culture - Expressed pride in African-American experience

  31. The Harlem Renaissance Flowers in New York • Claude McKay’s poems urged blacks to resist prejudice & discrimination - Also expressed the pain of living of life in the ghettos & the strain of being black in a world dominated by whites • Langston Hughes’s poems described difficult lives of working class - Many written in jazz, blues tempo • Zora Neale Hurston showed folkways, values of poor, Southern blacks

  32. African-American Performers • Influence& popularity of Harlem Renaissance reached beyond black audience • Musical comedy Shuffle Along launched movement - Was popular with white audiences • African-American performers won large followings • Paul Robeson - Became a major dramatic actor in London & New York

  33. African Americans and Jazz • Jazz born in early 20th century New Orleans • Spread across U.S. • Became the most popular form of music for dancing • Trumpeter Louis Armstrong made personal expression key part of jazz - Most influential musician in jazz history

  34. African Americans and Jazz • Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington - jazz pianist, orchestra leader - One of America’s greatest composers • Cab Calloway & Armstrong popularize scat - improvised jazz singing using sounds instead of words • Bessie Smith - blues singer, perhaps best vocalist of decade - 1927– She became the highest paid black artist in the world

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