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  1. Non-verbal Learning Disorder Hong Duong Sheryl Hoilette Portia Le Blanc

  2. Non-verbal Learning Disorder (NLD or NVLD) is a learning disorder where an individual has trouble processing communication that is not written or spoken. • The individual has highly developed verbal skills but has problems with visual-spatial-organization, social skills, and motoric coordination. • Respecting others’ personal space • Organization • Recalling visual images • Understanding facial expressions • Comprehend perceptual cues • Poor fine and gross motor skills NLD – Definition

  3. NLD – Possible Causes • Connected neurologically since the right hemisphere of the brain controls nonverbal processing • Studies over time of children who have NLD has made known that head injuries or damage to the right hemisphere of the brain may be a cause • Head injury that is moderate to severe • Radiation treatments on or near the head for long periods of time • Patients of hydrocephalus – a medical condition where fluid in the skull builds up causing the brain to swell • Removed brain tissue from the right hemisphere

  4. Can be mild to severe • Severe form has characteristics of Asperger’s • Weaknesses: • Visual-Spatial-difficulty with perception and imaging • Cognitive processing-difficulty understanding connections between information • Language-difficulty understanding humor and multiple meaning of words • Motor-difficulty with fine motor skills and lacks coordination • Social-difficulty with social interactions(nonverbal cues) • Behavioral-difficulty with transitions • Emotional-anxiety or depression • Strengths: • Students will have excellent auditory attention • Strong literacy skills • Students are verbal with good receptive language abilities • They are able to follow verbal directions by rote NLD – Characteristics

  5. NLD vs. AD/ADHD (Sands & Schwartz, 2000)

  6. NLD vs Asperger’s Syndrome and PDD (Sands & Schwartz, 2000)

  7. Prepare students for changes, giving logical explanations • State your expectations clearly • Make use of your student’s verbal skills to help with social interactions and nonverbal experiences. • To help with math, use real life examples, lots of verbal explanation and hands-on experiences. • Group the student with good role models • Allow a student with poor attention to take frequent breaks. NLD – Instructional Strategies

  8. Students should not be given assignment where they have to copy text • Have students with math computation difficulties write their problems on graph paper or loose leaf paper held sideways. • Paper and pencil work kept to a minimum • Students will need additional time for writing assignments NLD – Accommodations

  9. The student will need to be placed in an environment that has non-threatening contact to help them develop social skills • Keep environment predictable and familiar • Cooperative learning • Extra time during transitions • Make sure classroom is not too visually stimulating NLD – Modifications


  11. Early reader • High verbal skills • Extensive vocabulary • Teachers were impress that he could regurgitate facts like an encyclopedia (Roth, 2010) NLD – Case Studies: “Robert”

  12. Challenges: • Illegible handwriting • Comprehending visual-spatial in math. For example lining up numbers to do triple digit multiplication. • He was not able to form numbers which made it harder for him complete his math • Does not have a since of direction and often got lost • Confused about how things relate to each other • Couldn’t keep track of the ball when playing a team sport • Confused about how team mates followed through on plays • Issues with organizing and handing in work • Problems connecting with his classmates • Could not read between the lines and understand author’s main points • Wasn’t able to put information together to form the big picture when it comes to expository writing (Roth, 2010) NLD – Case Studies: “Robert” con’t

  13. Recommendations: • Should use a laptop for note taking • Teachers should provide him with outlines, class notes, and lesson plans so he could preview the material, and use it to structure his notes. • Working individually with a math tutor. • Use rich language to help teach and think through any type of visual information. (Roth, 2010) NLD – Case Studies: “Robert” con’t

  14. Eleven-year-old with a history of attention problems which he takes meds for • Diagnose with ADHD and school psychologist also suspected Asperger syndrome • Learned how to read easily but was not able to comprehend what he was reading • Parents would help him organize homework and projects • No time management • Had a hard time following instruction and finding his way in the new physical space • Did not like to socialize with classmates • Likes to work alone • Parents researched Roger’s traits, characteristics, and skills and believed he was misdiagnose • They requested a team evaluation (Sands & Schwartz, 2000) NLD – Case Studies: “Roger”

  15. Diagnose: • After evaluating Roger’s situation, the team concluded that Roger had multiply disorders. Not only does he have ADHD, he was also diagnose with Nonverbal Learning Disability because he exhibit difficulties with social relationship skills, organization skills, planning skills, study skills, social judgment, and visual spatial organization (Sands & Schwartz, 2000). NLD – Case Studies: “Roger” con’t

  16. Graphic organizer programs • Watchminder • Invisible clock • Livescribe pen • Electronic Organizers Personal Digital Assistants NLD – Assistive Technology Devices Watchminder Personal Organizer Livescribe pen

  17. A Decade of Support! NLD-In-Common • • LD Online • • NLD Hotline: • (831) 624.3542 • Partners Resource Network: Empowering Parents Through Education • • Welcome to NLDline! • NLD – Parent & Teacher Organizations

  18. Banks, K. L. (2012, July 20). Assistive technology for students with specific learning disabilities. Retrieved from • (Artist). (n.d.). The way your brain is organized. [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from • National Center for Biotechnology Information. (2011). Pubmed health: Hydrocephalus. Retrieved from • Northeast Educational Services Cooperative. (2006). Home: Transition. Retrieved from • Roth, C. (n.d.). Nonverbal learning disorder case study. Retrieved from • Sands, S., & Schwartz, S. (2000). Nonverbal learning disabilities. The NYU Child Study Center Letter, 4(5). Retrieved from • Thompson, S. (1996). Nonverbal learning disorders. LD Online. Retrieved from • UKCancom. (2011). Livescribe echo smart pin demo 1 [Web]. Retrieved from • Vacca, D. M. (2001). Confronting the puzzle of nonverbal learning disabilities. Educational Leadership, 26-31. References