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Dust Formation in the Early ( z >6) Universe. S. V. Marchenko Western Kentucky University. General importance. ~50% of the optical radiation emitted since the Big Bang by all sources in the universe has been ‘reprocessed’ by dust

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Dust Formation in the Early (z>6) Universe

S. V. Marchenko

Western Kentucky University


General importance
General importance

  • ~50% of the optical radiation emitted since the Big Bang by all

  • sources in the universe has been ‘reprocessed’ by dust

  • cooling (e.g. [CII] 157.7 m)  accretion  star formation rates

  • (massive, M> 30 M stars)  IMF

  • assembly of H2 on dust grains is far more efficient than in the

  • gas phase

  • dust in Lyman break galaxies at z~5 ? (Ando et al. 2004; Ouchi

  • et al. 2004)

  • CMB distortions; far-IR (=0.4-1.0 mm: Elfgren & Desert 2004)

  • background

Can we see a z~10 object?


Sfr and dust
SFR and dust

Star formation rates and dust attenuation:

GALEX/UV (Schiminovich et al. 2005)


Dust z 0 gen info
Dust z~0: gen. Info

Stars  Dust (MW Galaxy: Gehrz 1989)

AGB (C, OH/IR, Miras)

RSG ~ 10-3 M/yreach

SNe

PNe ~ 10-4 M/yreach

Wolf-Rayet

Presently, WRs produce <1% of the dust galaxy-wide.

Molecular clouds: 1-5times the stellar rate


Dust z 0 1
Dust z>>0 - 1

Stars  Dust (z>>0)

M(ini) Dust

M mass/* (M ) composition size

__________________________________________________________________

SNe(PopIII) 140-260 ? ? ?

SNe II  8 0.1-0.3, Z<<Z ? ?

3 , Z~Z Si, C, Fe(?) ‘standard’?,

~1m

LBVs  75-85 ? Z<<Z ? ?

 30(?)0.01-0.25, Z~Z Si, PAH, Al(??), ~1m +

C ‘small’

WCd  60-70 ? Z<<Z ? ?

 3010-3 -10-2 , Z~Z C(amorph.) ~1m+

‘small’


Dust z 0 2
Dust z>>0 - 2

Stars  Dust (z>>0)

M(ini) Dust

M mass/* (M) composition size

__________________________________________________________________

sgB[e] ? ? Z<<Z ? ?

 30-60 ? Z~Z Si ~1m

B[e]WD  5(?) ? ? ?

RSG  8-50 ? Z<<Z ? ?

 8-2510-4 -10-3, Z~Z Si ~0.5m+

‘standard’

AGB  1-(5-6) Mini(Z/Z), Z<<Z ? ?

(OH/IR)  1-6 ~10-3 Mini, Z~Z Si, C, ice ‘stand.’(?)


Sn facts
SN - facts

Dust in core-collapse SNe

Evidence:

- isotopic abundance ratios of grains in meteorites (excess of

13C, 15N, 18O, etc. - Travaglio et al. 1999)

- near-mid-IR (~1-2 yrs after explosion), sub-mm excesses

- blueshifted emission lines

HOW MUCH DUST ??

Theory: up to ~1M/expl.(Todini & Ferrara 2001)

Observations:

~10-3-10-2 M (mid-IR: Dwek 1993; Pozzo et al. 2004)

~1-2M [sub-mm: Dunne 2003, Morgan 2003]

Primordial (WR, LBV, RSG) dust? – SN2002hh [Barlow et al.2005],

SN 2002ic (Kotak et al., 2005)


Sn 1987a
SN – 1987A

Preexisting dust?

Light echoes in SN1987A: HST/WFPC2, F656N (Sugerman et al. 2005)


LBVs

LBVs: preexisting dust (RSG/BSG)?

AG Car: 12.5 μm (Voors et al. 2000)

η Car: Smith et al. 2002

η Car: L band, Chesneau et al. 2005


RSG

RSGs: in situ dust

VY CMa (M5e Ia): Smith et al., 2001


Wr104 pinwheel
WR104, pinwheel

WR104: WC9d+B0.5V(+VB), P = 220 d

April-June1998,

Keck, H-K interferometry:

Tuthill et al. (1999)

_______________________

150 mas


Wr48a gem
WR48a, Gem

WR48a: WC8ed+?

March 2004, Gemini-South/TReCS, 12.3 m


Wr112 animation
WR112, animation

WR 112 (WC9d+OB?)

Gemini, 12.5 m:

2001 vs. 2004

P ~ 12 y, D ~


Wr112 july 2004
WR112, july 2004

July 2004, Gemini-South/TReCS; 12.3 m



Wr112 dust survival
WR112, dust survival

… at least 20% of the initially formed dust survives the first ~100 years of expansion in a shocked environment… (Marchenko et al. 2002)


Z depend for wrs
Z-depend. For WRs

Meynet & Maeder (2005)

Does dust production depends on Z?

Binaries? – some [limited] help?


Model 1
Model-1

  • MODEL: modified from Loeb & Haiman (1997)

  • dust absorption coefficient

  • dust opacity

  • - for SMC (Cartledge et al. 2005)

  • - for MWG (Mathis 1990)

  • dust density

  • i - different categories of dust-producers: SN, massive stars, AGB

  • mass fraction of the deposited dust

  • or 10  z  20

  • z  10


Model 2
Model-2

  • - mass fraction of dust (efficiency of dust formation):

  • - Z-dependent for massive stars (Vink et al. 2001),

  • AGBs (van Loon 2000, C-rich class]

  • efficiency of star formation

  • (BH, NS, WD)

  • - from Drory et al. (2005)

  • mass fraction of collapsed barions

  • - standard CDM cosmology (Haiman & Loeb 1997)

  • - evolutionary timescales

  • 1, for z  zcr,i

  • 0, for z > zcr,i



Smcvsmwg
SMCvsMWG

Chemistry: SMC vs. MWG



Dust outp sn
Dust outp.: SN

Dust output from SNII; theory: Todini & Ferrara 2001


Dust yields
Dust yields

Left – pessimistic:

SNII – 1/10 theory,

Massive st. -

Right – optimistic (realistic?):

SNII – 1/30 theory,

Massive st. -


Conclusions
Conclusions

  • Conclusions:

  • Dominance of SNII at z>3 …IF dust can form in SN

  • ejecta…

  • ~10 overestimated theoretical for SNII

  • (cf. SN 2002hh: Barlow et al. 2005)

  • Fairly short dust-survival times, T 0.4 Gyr, in line

  • with Jones et al. (1994)


Things to do
Things to do

  • Things to do:

  • Dust formation and dust survival in the SN ejecta

  • (SEEDS collaboration, PI M.J. Barlow)

  • Dust formation/survival in the winds of massive stars

  • Dust formation (efficiency) and dust chemistry at Z~0


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