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Clinical Phonetics. Disorders. Articulation Disorders vs. Phonological Disorders. Methods of evaluation. Standardized tests Consonants Consonant clusters Sometimes vowels Spontaneous connected speech. Analyzing results. Misarticulations /articulation errors Phoneme to phoneme analysis

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disorders
Disorders
  • Articulation Disorders vs.
  • Phonological Disorders
methods of evaluation
Methods of evaluation
  • Standardized tests
    • Consonants
    • Consonant clusters
    • Sometimes vowels
  • Spontaneous connected speech
analyzing results
Analyzing results
  • Misarticulations/articulation errors
  • Phoneme to phoneme analysis
  • Types of errors/categories
    • Substitution
    • Addition
    • Omission
    • Distortion
  • Manner, place and voicing categories
phonological development
Phonological development
  • Disparity of Findings
    • Socioeconomic
    • Number of subjects
    • Method of speech sampling
    • Determining mastery – the age at which a particular phoneme is produced with some degree of accuracy (75-100% or 90-100%)
    • Customary Production – the age at which a particular phoneme is produced with greater than 50% accuracy in at least two word positions.
    • Gender of subjects
    • Dialects
developmental findings
Developmental findings
  • 90% mastery of several phonemes occurs by 3
  • Master of English phonemes may not be complete until 7-9 years
  • Manner – nasal, stops acquired first, then glides, fricatives, liquids and affricates
  • Place – front (labial/alverolar) produced first, then velar and palatal.
phonological process
Phonological process
  • Based on Natural Phonology theory – young children are born with innate processes necessary for the production of speech.
  • They often simplify the adult form.
  • As they mature, they learn to suppress the processes, and produce the appropriate form
phonological processes
Phonological Processes
  • Simplification of adult speech patterns
  • As children mature they learn to suppress these processes
  • Child is not viewed as not having a sound in his phonetic inventory, but as using a process that results in the deletion of that sound
  • Are found in typically developing children
phonological processes1
Phonological Processes
  • Categories
    • Syllable structure processes
    • Substitution processes
    • Assimilatory processes
syllable structure processes
Syllable Structure Processes
  • Syllables are simplified, usually into a consonant-vowel (CV) pattern
  • CV patterns among the first to be used by infants
syllable structure processes1
Syllable Structure Processes
  • Weak syllable deletion
    • Weak syllable is omitted when it precedes or follows a stressed syllable
  • Final consonant deletion
    • Final consonant is deleted
    • Patten becomes open syllable (CV)
    • Children start to use final consonants by 3:0
    • Process suppressed by 3:6
syllable structure processes2
Syllable Structure Processes
  • Reduplication
    • Repetition of a syllable of a word
    • Total reduplication – entire syllable
    • Partial reduplication – repetition of just a consonant or vowel
    • Suppressed before 3:0
  • Cluster reduction
    • Deletion of a consonant from a consonant cluster
    • If three sounds in consonant cluster then one or two may be deleted
    • Suppressed at 4:0
substitution processes
Substitution Processes
  • The replacement of one class of phonemes for another
substitution processes1
Substitution Processes
  • Stopping
    • Substitution of a stop for a fricative or affricate
    • Common because stops are acquired before fricatives
    • Usually for a stop produced with the same or similar place of articulation
    • May have a change in voicing
    • Suppressed by 2:6 to 5:0
substitution processes2
Substitution Processes
  • Stopping
    • Fricative/affricate Substitute stop
      • /s,,, /t/
      • ,,, /d/
      •  /p/
      •  /b/
substitution processes3
Substitution Processes
  • Fronting
    • Substitution of velar and palatal consonants with alveolar place of articulation
    • Suppressed by 2:6 to 3:0
substitution processes4
Substitution Processes
  • Fronting
    • Velar Alveolar
      • /k/ /t/
      • /g/ /d/
      • // /n/
    • Palatal Alveolar
      • // /s/
      • // /ts/
      • // /z/
      • // /dz/
substitution processes5
Substitution Processes
  • Deaffrication
    • Substitution of fricative for an affricate
  • Gliding
    • Substitution of glides /w/ or /j/ for liquid /l/ and /r/
    • Suppressed by 5:0 +
substitution processes6
Substitution Processes
  • Vocalization
    • Substitution of a vowel for postvocalic /l/ or /r/
    • Common in words with
      • /l/,
      • syllabic /l/
      • stressed and unstressed shwars
    • Vowels substituted
      • //
      • //
      • //, //
assimilatory processes
Assimilatory Processes
  • Alteration in phoneme production due to phonetic environment – Assimilation
  • Assimilatory processes
    • Labial
    • Velar
    • Nasal
    • Voicing
  • Types
    • Progressive
    • Regressive
  • Not present in all typically developing children
  • Suppressed by 3:0
assimilatory processes1
Assimilatory Processes
  • Labial assimilation
    • Nonlabial phoneme is produced with a labial place due to presence of labial phoneme in word
  • Alveolar assimilation
    • Nonalveolar is produced with an alveolar place of articulation due to presence of alveolar phoneme in the word
assimilatory processes2
Assimilatory Processes
  • Velar assimilation
    • Nonvelar phoneme is produced with a velar place of articulation due to presence of velar phoneme in the word
  • Voicing assimilation
    • Prevocalic
      • Voicing of a normally unvoiced consonant
      • When consonant precedes the nucleus of a syllable
    • Devoicing
      • Syllable final voiced phonemes that either
        • Precede a pause or silence between words, or
        • Occur at the end of an utterance
      • Final phoneme assimilates to the silence following the word
phonological processes3
Phonological Processes
  • May occur individually or in combination
  • More than one process may affect the pronunciation of any phoneme
    • June to /dun/ (deaffrication, stopping and fronting)
  • Not all processes occur in typically developing children
common phonological processes
Common Phonological Processes
  • Most common in typically developing children
    • Weak syllable deletion
    • Final consonant deletion
    • Gliding
    • Cluster reduction
suppression
Suppression
  • Suppression does not happen all at once
  • Most processes disappear by the age of 4
  • Suppressed by the age of three
    • Weak syllable deletion
    • Final consonant deletion
    • Reduplication
    • Fronting
    • Consonant assimilation
    • Prevocalic voicing
suppression1
Suppression
  • Suppressed after the age of three
    • Cluster reduction
    • Gliding
    • Vocalization
    • Stopping
    • Final devoicing
phonological disorders
Phonological Disorders
  • Children may display same types of processes
  • Processes may be suppressed later
processes common to children with phonological disorders
Processes common to children with phonological disorders
  • Cluster reduction
  • Weak syllable deletion
  • Final consonant deletion
  • Stopping
  • Velar and palatal fronting
  • Voicing processes
  • Labial, nasal and velar assimilation
  • Liquid simplification (combination of gliding and vocalization)
idiosyncratic processes
Idiosyncratic Processes
  • Processes not usually found in the speech of typically developing children
    • Glottal replacement –glottal stop for consonant
    • Backing –velar stop consonant for more anterior consonants
      • Usually involves alveolar and palatals, but may include labials
    • Initial consonant deletion
    • Stops replacing glide
    • Fricatives replacing a stop
independent analysis
Independent analysis
  • Inventory of phonemes produced by client
  • Syllable shapes (open/closed syllables, consonant clusters in initial/final position)
  • Combination of consonants and vowels (CV, CVC)
  • Word shapes (# of syllables)
  • Stress patterns
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