The Swinging Sixties Abby, Grace, Kurt, Matt, Tim 3-4
Music- Acid Rock/ Psychedelic • Bands and singers like The Beatles, Jimmie Hendrix, Pink Floyd, and Grateful Dead • Long instrumentals and solos created a "psychedelic experience" • Called "acid rock" because many listeners took acid or LSD to "enhance" their experience • Woodstock was the prime of this era • over crowded • a three day festival in New York • still infamous for being such a great concert
Fashion • Nehru Jackets: • Hip length, tailored jacket • For both men and woman • Inspired by India's peaceful lifestyle • Peasant Skirts: • Long, flowing skirts with lots of color • Mostly worn by hippies in the 60's • Go-Go boots: • Fashion focused on accentuating the leg • Low heeled, and came in a variety of lengths • Worn on a daily basis • The shorter the hemline, the higher the boot!
Hair • Afros “fro” • -worn by people with naturally curly hair • -created by combing hair away from scalp and secured in place by gel/hairspray • Bouffant hairstyles: • -hair piled high on top of head and some hanging down on the sides • -popular because of Jackie Kennedy • -took too much effort to create, so became less popular • Crew Cuts: • -hair is cut the same length over entire head • -hair on top of head is rounded, not flat • -originally, men who came back from war had crew cuts to show that they are heroes
Fads • GI Joes • G.I. = government issued • represented 4 branches of U.S. armed forces • led to the term "action figure" • Skateboards: • The first ones were like scooters, • Once the push-bar of the scooter was broken off, skateboarding was born • Became popular during the surfing craze • Makahaand Hobiebegan to mass-produce the surfing-inspired skateboards • 50 million skateboard were sold in 3 years • the first skateboard contest was held in 1963 • Skateboarding was a called unsafe and parents didn’t like them
TV, & Radio • The Flintstones was extremely popular • 40 million views an episode • Other popular shows: Bewitched, I Dream of Jeanie, Beverly Hillbillies, and The Adams Family • Radio stations played the most popular songs • the idea of ‘singles’ was created
Film • The Sound of Music was the highest grossing film • Many musicals won best picture • The counterculture movement made it’s way into cinema • Movies tackled issues of the day • Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner • Well known others: Breakfast at Tiffany’s, Psycho, The Apartment, and Lawrence of Arabia
Sports • Great expansion in major sports • Better transportation helped the teams and fans get to games • Leagues expanded into more geographical areas • Hockey • In 1967 the league went from 6 to 12 teams • The Penguins were one of the new teams added • Football • The first super bowl was in 1967 (Packers beat the Chiefs)
Sports • Baseball • The Pirates won the world series in 1960 • Game seven ended in the first World Series home run • They were the under dogs and miraculously won • In 1962 Jackie Robinson was inducted into the baseball hall of fame. • Roberto Clemente won MVP for the National League in 1966 • He is also known for his charity work in Puerto Rico
Athletes • Wilt Chamberlain • Towering 7’2” center • Averaged 50 pts per game • Famous, record setting 100 point game • Muhammad Ali • Turned pro in 1960, later labeled the greatest boxer of all time • Famous quote- “Fly like a butterfly, sting like a bee.” • Athletes became celebrities • Joe Namath, Arnold Palmer, Jack Nickalaus, etc.
Inventions • 1960- Halogen lamp • 1961- Valium, Nondairy creamer • 1962- Audio cassette, Fiber tip pen, Space War(1st computer video game) • 1963- Video disk • 1964- Acrylic paint, Permanent-press fabric
Inventions • 1965- Astroturf, Soft contact lenses, NutraSweet, CD, Kevlar • 1966- Electronic fuel injection • 1967- Handheld calculator • 1968- Computer mouse, Computer with integrated circuits, RAM • 1969- Arpanet(1st internet), Artificial heart, ATM, Bar-code scanner
Space Race USSR • 1st Orbiting Satellite-Sputnik I • 1st Living Creature in Space (Dog named Laika)- Sputnik II • 1st Human in Space (Yuri A. Gagarin)- Vostok I • 1stmultiperson spaceflight- Voskhod I • 1st man to “walk” in space- Alexei Leonov USA • 1st person on the moon (Neil Armstrong)- Apollo 11
The Moon Landing http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=RMINSD7MmT4. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first men to walk on the moon.
Slang • “That’s a gas” > lot’s of fun • “Decked out” > dressed up • “Don’t have a cow” > don’t freak out • “Fuzz” “Johnny Law” “Pig” > police • “Going steady” > committed dating • “PDA” > public display of affection • “Psychedelic” > bright/ dreamy
Economy • Minimum wage $1.30 • Cost of new home: $16,500. • Cost of a gallon of gas $0.31 • Cost of a gallon of Milk $0.49 • Unemployment 5.5% • Times were good for businesses!
Politics • Very progressive time • John F. Kennedy (61-63) • Democrat • Only Roman Catholic President • Cuban Missile Crisis • Assassinated • Lyndon B. Johnson (63-69) • Democrat • Sworn into office on plane • Anti poverty and pro civil rights • Vietnam
Changes Negative • Urban violence • Racism • JFK had a hard time getting legislation passed • Local and smaller governments fought • He would have a hard time getting re-elected • American Indian Treatment • High unemployment and discrimination • Increase in drug use • Increase in sexually transmitted diseases
Changes Positive • Children’s Rights • Education Act • Elderly Rights • Older American’s Act • Woman’s Rights • Equal Pay Act • War On Poverty/ Civil Rights
Roots: Civil Rights • Brown v Board (1954) • Made Segregation Illegal • Overturned Plessy v Ferguson • Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955) • Great example of civil disobedience • Little Rock Nine (1957) • Students stopped from going to school • All non-violent!
Civil Rights • Black Panthers • Group formed to protect blacks from police brutality • Eventually evolved into the Black Panther Party • Still a party today • Martin Luther King Jr. • Ahuge Civil Rights leader and activist • He won the Nobel peace prize • Famous for “I Have a Dream” speech • He was arrested many times • He was assassinated in 1968 • Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Signed by Johnson on July 2 • It prohibited discrimination in public places • It integrated schools and public facilities, made employment discrimination illegal
Great Society • Very progressive • Mostly “democratic” congress • Largest reform since the New Deal • 2 major pieces of legislation passed • The civil rights bill • Banned discrimination based on race and gender in employment and public facilities. • The economic opportunity act • “War on Poverty” • Also included: education, health care, the arts, transportation, and labor
Domestic Challenges • Unemployment rates were rising drastically • Inflation was rising • May 28th 1962 the Dow Jones average fell 35 points • the largest drop in one day since 1929, • resulted in a Stock Market decline • Many people in rural areas or part of a minority had to deal with discriminatory hiring techniques leaving them completely poverty stricken • Racism: Civil Rights movement
Foreign Challenges • Fear of a nuclear war breaking out due to Cuban Missile Crisis in 1963 • The Berlin Wall (61) which separated East and West Germany • Fear that communism would spread • Cuba because of Fidel • Ties to the SU
Bay of Pigs • Unsuccessful action by Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba • U.S. Government supported this • An attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro’s government • The invasion was launched in April1961 • Less than three months after JFK became president
Cuban Missile Crisis • October 1962 • Soviet Union secretly installed nuclear missiles in Cuba • JFK ordered a naval quarantine of Cuba • Soviets refused to remove the missiles unless the U.S. removed its military base in Turkey • The crisis ended on October 28th due to a secret agreement between JFK and Nikita Khrushchev
Vietnam • Kennedy's motivations for Vietnam • continue Eisenhower's policy of containment • Didn't want communism to spread anymore • Part of the cold war • Many Americans were against it
Gulf of Tonkin • August 1964 • North Vietnamese forces attacked two U.S. destroyers • Congress passed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution- gave Johnson the power “to take all necessary measures ... to prevent further aggression"
Failure of Johnson’s Policy • Operation Rolling Thunder- U.S. bombed North Vietnamese cities to force a peace settlement • North Vietnamese endured the bombing raids and responded with a huge military assault • The Tet Offensive- North Vietnamese forces pushed the South back • Tet Offensive solidified American opposition to Johnson’s policy
The Swinging Sixties! • Would you be a hippy if you lived in the sixties? • Do you love any films or music from the sixties? • Any questions? • Thanks!