Organizational Culture, Socialization, and Mentoring Chapter Three
Learning Objectives LO.1 Define organizational culture and discuss its three layers. LO.2 Discuss the difference between espoused and enacted values. LO.3 Describe the four functions of organizational culture. LO.4 Discuss the four types of organizational culture associated with the competing values framework. LO.5 Summarize the five conclusions derived from research about the outcomes associated with organizational culture.
Learning Objectives (cont.) LO.6 Review the four caveats about culture change. LO.7 Summarize the methods used by organizations to change organizational culture. LO.8 Describe the three phases in Feldman’s model of organizational socialization. LO.9 Discuss the various socialization tactics used to socialize employees. LO.10 Explain the four developmental networks associated with mentoring.
Organizational Culture • Organizational culture • set of shared, taken-for-granted implicit assumptions that a group holds and that determines how it perceives, thinks about and reacts to its various environments
Organizational Culture Characteristics • Passed on to new employees through the process of socialization • Influences our behavior at work • Operates at different levels
Layers of Organizational Culture • Observable artifacts • Consist of the physical manifestation of an organization’s culture • Acronyms, manner of dress, awards, myths and stories, published lists of values, observable rituals and ceremonies, special parking spaces, and decorations
Question? Every month, Bombay Bazaar awards an "Employee of the Month" award to one employee and as a reward offers a $100 check and an assigned parking space with the employees' name for the month. This is an example of which of these? • Basic underlying assumption • Externally enacted values • Observable artifacts • Socialization
Layers of Organizational Culture • Values • concepts or beliefs that pertain to desirable end states, transcend situations, guide selection of behavior and are ordered by relative importance • Espoused values • represent the explicitly stated values and norms that are preferred by an organization
Question? The top management of Rock-Top Sports Equipment has clearly stated the values and norms that are preferred by Rock-Top. These are referred to as __________. • Espoused values. • Under-the-surface artifacts. • Enacted values. • Basic assumptions.
Layers of Organizational Culture • Enacted values • represent the values and norms that actually are exhibited or converted into employee behavior • Based on observable behavior
Layers of Organizational Culture • Basic assumptions • Constitute organizational values that have become so taken for granted over time that they become assumptions that guide organizational behavior
Question? Fredhandbag Photography is a family-owned business. All of the employees are encouraged to speak up with any ideas to improve the business. What type of culture does this resemble? • Clan • Adhocracy • Hierarchy • Market
Outcomes Associated with Organizational Culture • Clearly related to measures of organizational effectiveness. • Employees are more satisfied and committed to organizations with clan cultures. • Innovation and quality can be increased by building characteristics associated with clan, adhocracy, and market cultures into the organization.
Outcomes Associated with Organizational Culture (cont.) • An organization’s financial performance is not very strongly related to organizational culture. • Companies with market cultures tend to have more positive organizational outcomes.
The Process of Culture Change • Organizational members teach each other about the organization’s preferred values, beliefs, expectations, and behaviors
The Process of Culture Change • Formal statements of organizational philosophy, mission, vision, values, and materials used for recruiting, selection and socialization • The design of physical space, work environments, and buildings • Slogans, language, acronyms, and sayings • Deliberate role modeling, training programs, teaching and coaching by managers and supervisors • Explicit rewards, status symbols (e.g., titles),and promotion criteria
The Process of Culture Change • Stories, legends, and myths about key people and events • The organizational activities, processes, or outcomes that leaders pay attention to, measure, and control • Leader reactions to critical incidents and organizational crises • The workflow and organizational structure • Organizational systems and procedures • Organizational goals and the associated criteria used for recruitment, selection, development, promotion, layoffs, and retirement of people
Organizational Socialization • Organizational Socialization • process by which a person learns the values, norms, and required behaviors which permit him to participate as a member of the organization
Phase 1: Anticipatory Socialization • Occurs before an individual joins an organization • Involves the information people learn about different careers, occupations, professions, and organizations
Phase 2: Encounter • Employees learn what the organization is really like and reconcile unmet expectations • Onboarding programs • help employees to integrate, assimilate, and transition to new jobs by making them familiar with corporate policies, procedures, and culture and by clarifying work role expectations and responsibilities
Question? Amy recently started a new job. Everyone she interviewed with seemed very personable and easy-going. She was quite surprised when during her first week on the job she witnessed a loud and argumentative confrontation in the hallway between two of her coworkers. People seem so different than the way she expected them to be. Amy is in which stage of the socialization process? • Change and acquisition • Anticipatory socialization • Adaptive • Encounter
Phase 3: Change and Acquisition • Requires employees to master important tasks and roles and to adjust to their work group’s values and norms
Question? Army recruits must attend boot camp before they can work alongside established soldiers. This is an example of _________ socialization. • Collective • Individual • Formal • Disjunctive
Embedding Organizational Culture through Mentoring • Mentoring • the process of forming and maintaining developmental relationships between a mentor and a junior person
Developmental Networks Underlying Mentoring • Diversity of developmental relationships • reflects the variety of people in a network used for developmental assistance • Two sub-components • Number of different people the person is networked with • Various social systems from which the networked relationships stem
Question? Troy received a job offer straight out of college and moved to Omaha, Nebraska a year ago. He has been introduced to numerous people in his workplace, his community, and his church. Although it's nice to see a familiar face, he doesn't see them too often and feels like he doesn't know them very well. Which type of developmental network best describes Troy's situation? • Counseling • Receptive • Traditional • Opportunistic
Mentoring • Developmental relationship strength reflects the quality of relationships among the individual and those involved in his developmental network
Personal and Organizational Implications • It is important to foster a broad developmental network because the number and quality of your contacts will influence your career success. • Job and career satisfaction are likely to be influenced by the consistency between an individual’s career goals and the type of developmental network at his disposal
Personal and Organizational Implications • A developer’s willingness to provide career and psycho-social assistance is a function of the protégé’s ability, potential, and the quality of the interpersonal relationship
Personal and Organizational Implications • It is important to become proficient at using social networking tools such as Twitter, http://www.LinkedIn.com, and Facebook. • These tools not only enable you to increase the breadth of your social network, but they also can increase your productivity.
Video Case: Johnson & Johnson Credo • What makes Johnson & Johnson’s credo stand out from those espoused by other companies? • How does the credo guide the actions of the employees at Johnson & Johnson? • Why would the basic premises of the credo be able to remain so constant after nearly 70 years? • What are the basic values expressed by the credo? Why are they important to Johnson & Johnson’s success?
Video Case: New Belgium Brewery • What is different about New Belgium Brewery’s culture? • Employees at New Belgium Brewery appear to be highly engaged in their jobs. Why is this? • How does the culture at New Belgium Brewery contribute to their level of financial success? • Is open books management a management system all organizations should consider? Why or why not?