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Russian Declension and Conjugation. Chapter 7: Verbal Adjectives and Verbal Adverbs. Just in case you were wondering…. “Verbal adjectives” are PARTICIPLES Imperfective: present active ( ведущий ) & present passive (просимый) Perfective:

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Russian declension and conjugation

Russian Declension and Conjugation

Chapter 7: Verbal Adjectives and Verbal Adverbs

Just in case you were wondering
Just in case you were wondering…

  • “Verbal adjectives” are PARTICIPLES

    • Imperfective:

      • present active (ведущий) & present passive (просимый)

    • Perfective:

      • past active (can be imperfective; живший, выпивший) & past passive (вымытый)

  • “Verbal adverbs” are GERUNDS

    • Imperfective > present (прося)

    • Perfective > past (сняв)

A note on reflexives
A note on reflexives

  • For reflexive verbs, always add –ся to a participle, and always add –сь to a gerund

  • For past gerunds, this means that you have to have –vši (no truncation of –vši to –v): улыбнувшись

A handy reference
A handy reference!

  • Look at the back cover of the Townsend book!

  • It has tables showing the distribution of the past passive participle and the past active participle formants!

  • You might want to memorize these tables! (Or at least become very good friends with them!)

Present formants
Present Formants

  • Present Active Participles: I conjugation adds -ušč-, II conjugation adds -ašč-

  • Present Passive Participles: I conjugation adds -om-, II conjugation adds -im- (limited to certain suffixed types: AJ, VAJ, OVA, I, E, h-A)

  • Present Gerund: -a

Present stress
Present stress

  • For the present participles and gerund:

    • Stress on stem if non-past has fixed stem stress, otherwise, stress on vowel of formant

    • Except: Stress on stem if the non-past has shifting stress

  • An easier rule: It’s usually on the formant, but if the verb has non-past shifting stress, it’s on the stem

Past formants
Past formants

  • Past Active Participle and Gerund: -š(-) for obstruent stems, R, (NU) [occasional truncation of stem consonant instead, o>e in D/T stems], -vš(-/i) for all others

  • Stress is same as masculine past, but cannot be on prefix (except R verbs, that can have stressed prefix)

  • Perfective motion verbs can have past gerund in –a instead of -vši

Russian declension and conjugation

  • -t- for resonants, NU, (NU), O

  • -on- for obstruents, I, E (j-mutation)

  • -n- for others (no j-mutation for A verbs)

    Mnemonic device: You add an obstruent (t) to resonant stems, and a resonant (n) to obstruents

Note this deviation
Note this deviation:

  • Levin says that E verbs have the –on- PPP formant, and states that V+V mutation is regular, but “occasional”

  • Townsend says that E verbs have the –n- formant, and notes that C mutation in the PPP is rare for these verbs

  • The vowel before the n in these PPPs almost never bears stress, so it is hard to decide which one it is anyway…

Stress on the ppp
Stress on the PPP

  • Long forms for suffixed stems:

    • -t-, -n-: if stress is on suffix (fixed or shifting) in base form, it retracts one syllable, otherwise stress remains where it is in base form

    • -on-: if non-past has shifting stress, stress retracts one syllable, otherwise same as base form

  • Long forms for unsuffixed stems:

    • -t-, -on-: same syllable as past tense (non-feminine)

Stress on the ppp cont d
Stress on the PPP, cont’d.

  • Suffixed verbs:

    • -t-, -n-: same stress as long form

  • Both suffixed and unsuffixed verbs:

    • Stressed –on- in long form means ending stress for all short forms

  • Unsuffixed verbs:

    • -t-: if past has shifting stress, so does short PPP