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First and Second Conjugation Verbs and First and Second Declension Noun. September 15 th , 2011. Verbs – General Remarks. 5 primary characteristics. Person (1 st person, 2 nd person, 3 rd person). Number (singular, plural). Tense (present, past, future).

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First and second conjugation verbs and first and second declension noun

First and Second Conjugation VerbsandFirst and Second Declension Noun

September 15th, 2011


Verbs general remarks
Verbs – General Remarks

5 primary characteristics.

  • Person (1st person, 2nd person, 3rd person).

  • Number (singular, plural).

  • Tense (present, past, future).

  • Mood (indicative, subjunctive, imperative).

  • Voice (active, passive).

  • To “parse” a verb means to list its person, number, mood, tense, and voice.

  • To “conjugate” a verb is to list its forms according to person and number according to its specific tense, mood, and voice.


Person and number
Person and Number

  • 1st person singular = I.

  • 2nd person singular = You.

  • 3rd person singular = She/He/It.

  • 1stperson plural = We.

  • 2nd person plural = You (Latin distinguishes between “you” singular and “you” plural).

  • 3rd person plural = They.


Example to praise
Example – To Praise

  • 1st singular = I praise.

  • 2nd singular = You praise.

  • 3rd singular = She/He/It praises.

  • 1st plural = We praise.

  • 2nd plural = You praise.

  • 3rd plural = They praise.

  • NOTE: English requires the presence of the pronoun or an otherwise stated subject.


Personal endings
Personal Endings

  • Latin does not always require the subject to be explicitly stated.

  • Determined by personal verb endings.

    Personal Endings in the Present Indicative Active.

  • 1st singular = -o or -m.

  • 2nd singular = -s.

  • 3rd singular = -t.

  • 1st plural = -mus.

  • 2nd plural = -tis

  • 3rd plural = -nt.

  • Personal endings are added to the verb stem.


Putting it all together
Putting It All Together

  • Step 1: Find the Verb Stem:

  • 2nd form listed in any dictionary entry; always ends in “re”. (Laudāre – To Praise; Monēre – To advise).

  • Step 2: Drop the infinitive ending “re” – Laudā - , Monē - .

  • Step 3: Add personal endings.


Conjugation of laudare and monere in the present indicative active
Conjugation of Laudare and Monerein the Present, Indicative, Active

Laudare – Stem = Lauda-

Monere – Stem = Mone-

  • 1st sing. – Laudo – I praise.

  • 2nd sing. – Laudas – Your praise.

  • 3rd sing. – Laudat – She/He/It praises.

  • 1st pl. – Laudamus - We praise.

  • 2nd pl. – Laudatis – You praise.

  • 3rd pl. – Laudant – They praise.

  • 1st sing. – Moneo – I advise.

  • 2nd sing. – Mones – You advise.

  • 3rd sing. – Monet – She/He/It advises.

  • 1st pl. – Monemus – We advise.

  • 2nd pl. – Monetis – You advise.

  • 3rd pl. – Monent – They advise.


Things to note
Things to Note

  • Laudare = 1st conjugation verb; characterized by the infinitive –āre; thus “a” is retained on the verb stem.

  • Monere = 2nd conjugation verb; characterized by the infinitive –ēre; thus “e” is retained on the verb stem.

  • A subject need not always be present in the sentence; often implied by the verb ending ( i.e. “I praise the dog” = “Ego canemlaudo” OR “Canemlaudo.”

  • The present tense can be translated two ways (i.e. Laudo = “I praise” OR “I am praising”); context will determine which translation is required.


The imperative
The Imperative

  • Imperative = A direct order or a command.

  • Therefore has only second person singular or plural forms.

    The Singular imperative - Simply the verb stem.

  • Laudā - “Praise!”

  • Monē - “Advise!”

    The Plural Imperative – Verb stem + -te:

  • Laudāte – “Praise!”.

  • Monēte – “Advise!”.


Nouns adjectives and cases
Nouns/Adjectives and Cases

  • Role of a noun and/or adjective in a sentence determined by its “case” not by word order.

  • Latin has 7 cases: Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, Ablative, Vocative, Locative.

  • To list all the forms of a noun/adjective according to its cases is called “declension.”

  • Latin has 5 declensions (i.e. 1st, 2nd, 3rd etc); Each declension follows a specific pattern; learn to recognize the pattern.

  • Nouns/adjectives also possess one of three genders: Feminine, Masculine, and Neuter.


Basic summary of declensions and their uses
Basic Summary of Declensions and Their Uses

  • Nominative – Always the subject of the sentence.

  • Accusative – Direct object (except after certain prepositions, esp. motion toward).

  • Genitive – Usually the possessive case; translate with “of” (i.e. The book of the poet OR the poet’s book).

  • Dative – Indirect object; indicate for whom/what or to whose advantage a certain action is performed; translate as “to” or “for –” (i.e. The poet gave the roses to the girl. He sacrificed his life for his country.); certain verbs take dative objects.

  • Ablative – An adverbial case because it describes the meansor the agent by which an action was done (i.e. He shouted with great anger); accompaniment (i.e. She went to Italy with her father.); place where or from which (i.e. He departed from Greece to look for Caesar); time when or within which (i.e. On the ides of March Caesar met his end); following certain prepositions (i.e. Ab = by, from, Cum = with, De and Ex = from, in = on). NOTE: For now translate with “by, with, or from” according to context.

  • Vocative – Implies an address; highly rhetorical (i.e. Oh Great Caesar....).


First declension feminine nouns and adjectives
First Declension (Feminine)Nouns and Adjectives

Porta (Gate)

Magna, Magnus, Magnum (Great)

  • Nom – Porta – a.

  • Gen – Portae – ae.

  • Dat – Portae – ae.

  • Acc – Portam – am

  • Abl – Portā – ā.

  • Voc – Porta – a.

  • Nom – Portae – ae.

  • Gen – Portārum – ārum.

  • Dat – Portīs – īs.

  • Acc – Portās – ās.

  • Abl – Portīs – īs.

  • Voc – Portae – ae.

  • Nom – Magna –a.

  • Gen – Magnae – ae.

  • Dat – Magnae – ae.

  • Acc – Magnam – am.

  • Abl – Magnā – ā.

  • Voc – Magna – a.

  • Nom – Magnae– ae.

  • Gen – Magnārum– ārum.

  • Dat – Magnīs– īs.

  • Acc – Magnās– ās.

  • Abl – Magnīs– īs.

  • Voc – Magnae.


Second declension masculine nouns and adjectives
Second Declension (Masculine) Nouns and Adjectives

Amicus (Friend)

Magnus, Magna, Magnum (Great)

  • Nom – Amicus – us.

  • Gen – Amicī – ī.

  • Dat – Amicō – ō.

  • Acc – Amicum – um.

  • Abl - Amicō – ō.

  • Voc – Amice – e.

  • Nom - Amicī – ī.

  • Gen – Amicōrum – ōrum.

  • Dat – Amicīs. - īs.

  • Acc – Amicōs – ōs.

  • Abl - Amicīs. - īs.

  • Voc - Amicī – ī.

  • Nom – Magnus – us.

  • Gen – Magnī– ī.

  • Dat – Magnō– ō.

  • Acc – Magnum – um.

  • Abl - Magnō– ō.

  • Voc – Magne– e.

  • Nom - Magnī– ī.

  • Gen – Magnōrum– ōrum.

  • Dat – Magnīs. - īs.

  • Acc – Magnōs– ōs.

  • Abl - Magnīs. - īs.

  • Voc - Magnī– ī.


Basic rules and hints
Basic Rules and Hints.

  • An adjective must agree with the noun it modifies in gender, number, and case (i.e. Magnarumportarum – “of the great gates”; cum magnisamicis – “with great friends”).

  • Some cases are the same in form; only context which tell you which one to use.

  • Memorize declensions; first declension is feminine and is characterized by the “a” attached to the root; second declension is masculine and is characterized by “u” attached to the root.

  • Memorize what declension a noun belongs to when you learn that noun.

  • Always identify 1. Main verb. 2. Subject (Nominative if expressed at all). 3. Direct object (Accusative) – then fill in the rest.


Apposition
Apposition

  • Sometimes a noun is used to further describe another noun in the sentence: (i.e. I see Gaius, my son, in the field).

  • “Son” provides additional information about “Gaius” and so “son” and “Gaius” are in apposition.

  • Will agree in case and number.

  • Gaium, filiummeum, in agro video.


Sententiae antiquae pp 21 22
SententiaeAntiquae(pp. 21-22)