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Cell Activity - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Cell Activity. Contents. Plant Cells vs. Animal Cells Specialised Cells Specialised Animal Cells Cells, Tissues, Organs and Systems Diffusion & Osmosis Partially Permeable Membrane Mitosis Meiosis Mitosis vs. Meiosis. Plant cells, Animal cells. Only plant cells have these: Cell wall

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Presentation Transcript
contents
Contents
  • Plant Cells vs. Animal Cells
  • Specialised Cells
  • Specialised Animal Cells
  • Cells, Tissues, Organs and Systems
  • Diffusion & Osmosis
  • Partially Permeable Membrane
  • Mitosis
  • Meiosis
  • Mitosis vs. Meiosis
plant cells animal cells
Plant cells, Animal cells
  • Only plant cells have these:
  • Cell wall
  • Large vacuole
  • Chloroplasts
  • Both types of cell have these:
  • Nucleus
  • Cytoplasm
  • Cell membrane
  • Mitochondria – Energy is released here by respiration
specialised cells
Specialised Cells

Root hair cell in PLANTS:

  • It is adapted to do its job of taking in water and nutrients by having:
  • a large surface area
  • a thin cell membrane

The sperm cell is an example of a specialised ANIMAL cell:

specialised animal cells
Specialised Animal Cells

Red Blood Cell - Carries oxygen around the body

Adaptations - No nucleus, large surface area, so maximum area for oxygen carriers: haemoglobin

White Blood Cell – Fight disease, some make antibodies

Adaptations - Irregular shape, they can change shape to squeeze out of blood vessels and get to the site of infection.

Others have cytoplasm which can flow making it possible for the cell to change shape, surround and engulf bacteria.

Can increase in numbers to fight disease.

cells tissues organs and systems
Cells, Tissues, Organs and Systems

All living things are made up of cells…

A group of CELLS e.g. Heart Muscle makes up a TISSUE

e.g. Heart Muscle Tissue

A group of TISSUES makes up an ORGAN

e.g. Heart

A group of ORGANS makes up a SYSTEM

e.g. Circulatory System

A group of SYSTEMS make up an ORGANISM

e.g. Humans

diffusion osmosis
Diffusion & Osmosis
  • Diffusion = movement of molecules, from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.
  • - Oxygen diffuses into cells, and the waste carbon dioxide diffuses out.
  • Osmosis = movement of water molecules, across a partially permeable membrane, from a region of high concentration of water to a low concentration of water molecules.
  • It allows plants to take in water through their roots.
  • It is used in kidney dialysis machines to filter the blood.
partially permeable membrane
Partially Permeable Membrane

Small molecules, such as water can pass through the small holes in the membrane…

But larger molecules like sugar cannot pass through the membrane.

cell division
Cell Division

Mitosis and meiosis are the two types of cell division.

Mitosis enables growth and repair to occur.

Meiosis is for the production of sex cells.

mitosis asexual

Mitosis is a process of cell division which results in the production of two daughter cells from a single parent cell. The daughter cells are identical to one another and to the original parent cell.

Mitosis (Asexual)

Each chromosome replicates

mitosis vs meiosis
Mitosis vs. Meiosis
  • Meiosis:
  • Used to produce gametes for sexual reproduction
  • Each daughter cell has half the number of chromosomes of the parent
  • (23 in humans)
  • Mitosis:
  • Used for growth and repair of cells
  • Used in asexual reproduction
  • Cells with identical number of chromosomes and genetic information are produced
  • (46 in humans)
summary
Summary
  • Specialised cells are adapted for a specific function

e.g. root hair cell, red blood cell

  • Cells  tissues  organs  systems  organism
  • Diffusion = movement of particles from a region of high concentration to low concentration e.g. alveoli
  • Mitosis = asexual reproduction. Daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes as parent cells
  • Meiosis = sexual reproduction. Daughter cells (gametes) have ½ the number of chromosomes as parent cells