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The Internet as a Mass Medium. Mass Media means books, newspapers, journals, bulletins or other publications, television and radio programmes, film and other audiovisual studio productions and other means of disseminating of information .

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Presentation Transcript
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Mass Media means books, newspapers, journals, bulletins or other publications, television and radio programmes, film and other audiovisual studio productions and other means of disseminating of information.

According to this Law, technical and service documents and securities are not ascribed to mass media.

REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA LAW

ON PROVISION OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC, 2000

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Interactivity as a multi-dimensional concept

It directs the focus to the intersection of the psychological and the sociological.

It bridges between mass and interpersonal communication.

It may be achieved in mediated and direct communication.

slide4

Types of interactivity

Declarative (one-way) communication (e.g. most traditional media: radio, TV, newspapers).

In reactive (two-way) communication one side responds to the other.

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Fully interactive communication requires that the messages in any sequence take into account not just messages that preceded them, but also the manner in which previous messages were reactive.

In this manner interactivity forms a social reality.

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What does interactivity do?

It is associated with patterns of orientation: cognitive, affective and evaluational. The attitudinal dimensions of acceptance and satisfaction.

It is related to performance quality, motivation, sense of fun, cognition, learning, openness, frankness and sociability.

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2002, March-May

63 mainstream media Web sites

29 criteria of interactivity

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Responsive interaction (comments and opinion, chats, discussion forums, possibility to reach producers, possibility to reach news providers, SMS messaging, transactions and mobile tones, tests and questions, e-cards and greetings).

Choice (structuring of information into verticals, language, personalization).

Attraction (illustrative and original details such as animation, design elements, cartoons, games and crosswords).

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Accumulation (counter, visitor registration, search mechanisms, archives, classifieds).

Connectivity (links to own sites, links to other sites, Web-cats, banners, WAP, headlines to your site).

Mobility (news and information which “arrives” to the reader via SMS messages or e-mail newsletters).

Real-time information (breaking news, ‘now on air’).

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Producers and audiences on the Internet

M. Morris and C. Ogan, 1996. "The Internet as mass medium," Political Communication, volume 46, pp. 39-50.

Numbers of those communicating (one, few, many)

Time & Process (asynchronous, synchronous)

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Types of categories

One-to-one asynchronous communication

Many-to-many asynchronous communication (signing-up)

Synchronous communication that can be one-to-one, one-to-few, or one-to-many (requires organization)

Asynchronous communication that involves many-to-one, one-to-one, or one-to-many relationships (seeking information)

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“Online journalism” as a new buzzword

It has emerged in the media context and already has ambitions to become a different (some would say "new") model for journalism.

What is quality of online journalism?

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Technological and intellectual fusion

What are unique technological features of the Internet?

Do technological solutions applied to old journalism serve to produce new journalism?

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From traditional ("old") journalism to online journalism

Interactivity --

Hypertextuality --

Multiple media features --

Personification --

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Interactivity is a process-related, variable characteristic of communication settings.

The outcome of interactivity is engagement.

Interactivity can lead to sociability. It can help in explaining how groups stick together.

Interactivity is not a characteristic of the medium. It is a process-related construct about communication.

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Hypertextuality and different layers of editorial depth

“Lead” of the story

“Total journalism” – as a new genre? Merging into the hyperfiction style of writing?

“Transparency”

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Personification

Multiple media elements -- a common delivery technology

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Impact on journalism

Authentic journalism

New requirements: cognitive potential, multi-skilling

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Freedom of access and freedom of expression on the Web are affecting professional journalism in the sense that the boundary between journalism and non-journalism are increasingly being blurred.

Also, boundaries between the editorial and advertising are becoming less clear (“church – state” separation)

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Some have even said that professional journalism is about to die, because in cyberspace anyone can practice journalism and become their own reporter, publisher, information provider and news disseminator.

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This democratic nature of the Internet is at the heart of the process, but where will it take us?

How will be know that the information which we are receiving is truly newsworthy?

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Case study (3rd quarter of 2001):

Electronic periodicals (news portals)

Staff numbers, Revenues, Expenses, Audience

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Title of online periodical

Characteristics

Staff

Revenue sources

Main expenditures

Average number of users

www.delfi.lt

News, general interest affairs

11 (2 among them with journalism education)

50% from banner advertising

Technological developments and human resources

www.omni.lt

Telecommunications news and daily affairs

3 (2 journalists, language editor)

Internet services, direct investments

Not observed

Not observed

www.tv.lt

Main television programs portal

2: news editor and technician

60%: banner advertising;

40% webcast of live events

Advertising (5%), technological developments (40-50%), market research (10-20%), human resources (30%)

500 (it may rise up to 1000 depending on the program webcasted)

www.tvnet.lt

News, daily affairs, few television news programs

13 (2 journalists)

20%: banner advertising;

80%: sponsorship

Advertising (5%), technological developments (50%), human resources (40%)

700

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Title of online periodical

Characteristics

Staff

Revenue sources

Main expenditures

Average number of users

www.5ci.lt

News and telecommunications news

17 (5 among them with journalism education)

Internet services

Advertising (30%), technological developments (30%), human resources (40%)

200-400

www.e-biz.lt

Business news

3 news editors and 5-6 part-time correspondents

Direct technological investments and subsidies; subscription

80% for technological developments

250-300

www.mama.lt

Special interest news

1

Not observed

Not observed

200