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Mass Communication on the Internet

Mass Communication on the Internet

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Mass Communication on the Internet

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  1. Mass Communication on the Internet Using Mailing Lists and Newsgroups New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  2. Objectives • Learn about different types of mailing lists. • Locate mailing lists on the Web. • Join and leave a mailing list. • Learn how to post messages to a mailing list. • Retrieve and read a mailing list’s archived files. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  3. Objectives • Learn about Usenet newsgroups. • Configure a news account using an e-mail program. • Subscribe and unsubscribe to a newsgroup. • Learn how to reply to and post articles to Usenet newsgroups. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  4. What Is a Mailing List? • A popular way of sharing information is to join, or subscribe to, a mailing list. • A mailinglist is a list of names and e-mail addresses for a group of people who share a common interest in a subject or topic and exchange information by subscribing to the list. • Discussiongroups are another name for the groups represented in a mailing list. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  5. What Is a Mailing List? • You send your information and opinions to a mailing list by posting (or sending) an e-mail message to the list. • When you post a message to a mailing list, the e-mail list software running on the server automatically forwards your message to every e-mail address on the mailing list. • The server that runs the e-mail list software is sometimes called a listserver because it runs the list. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  6. What Is a Mailing List? • Messages are e-mail messages that express ideas or ask questions that each member of the mailing list receives. • Commands request the list server to take a prescribed action. • The listaddress, or the listname, is the address to which you send messages and replies. • The administrativeaddress is the e-mail address to which you send commands, such as the address that you use to subscribe to a list. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  7. Information flow in a mailing list

  8. Common Mailing List Commands New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  9. Common Mailing List Commands New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  10. Moderated and Unmoderated Lists • A list moderator moderates a mailing list to ensure that the list always receives and sends appropriate and relevant information to its members. • When a listmoderator is responsible for discarding any messages that are inappropriate for or irrelevant to the list’s members, the list is known as a moderatedlist. • When an individual does not moderate the list and postings are sent to list members automatically, the list is an unmoderatedlist. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  11. Moderated and Unmoderated Lists • A closed list is one in which membership is not automatic. • In a closedlist, the list administrator, a person assigned to oversee one or more mailing lists, can either reject or accept your request to become a member. • The listadministrator might reject your membership request if the list has too many members or if you are not part of the group’s specified community. • Most lists are openlists that automatically accept all members, in which case the list has no administrator. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  12. Warnings About Mailing Lists • You might receive many e-mail messages every day from the list server. • If you subscribe to several mailing lists, you might find that the mail volume is more than you can read. • New list members sometimes repeat questions and comments that have been previously posted in the mailing list. • You expose yourself to potential privacy problems because the message you send contains your name and e-mail address. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  13. Warnings About Mailing Lists • The process of observing messages without posting any new messages is called lurking. You should lurk when you first join a mailing list. • You might consider deleting your signature from e-mail messages you post to the mailing list and using a free e-mail account address for your subscriptions. • Many unmoderated mailing lists receive postings from people who discuss topics outside the scope of the list or post spam messages that contain advertisements for unrelated products and services. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  14. Searching for Existing Mailing Lists • The Internet provides access to thousands of mailing lists on many different topics. • You can use your Web browser to search sites of mailing lists based on keywords or categories that you provide. • There are several “lists of lists” sites that you can visit to start your search. • Topica is a Web site that identifies and hosts mailing lists by category and name. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  15. Searching for Existing Mailing Lists mailing list categories enter search keywords here Topica home page New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  16. Searching forExisting Mailing Lists • Different mailing-list sites store information about different lists. You might find more lists by searching a different site. • PAML, which is an acronym for Publicly Accessible Mailing Lists, is a Web site that lists mailing lists by category and by name. • When a mailing list includes a link to a Web site, it is a good idea to visit the sponsor’s Web site to learn more about the kind of information it will provide. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  17. Subscribing to a Mailing List • You should subscribe to a mailing list whose members share your interests so you can receive and exchange ideas. • There are two ways to subscribe to a mailing list: • Send an e-mail message to the list server with a request to join the list’s membership. • Visit the mailing list sponsor’s Web site and use a form to enter your name and e-mail address. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  18. Subscribing to a Mailing List • If you subscribe to a closed list, the list’s administrator must approve your membership. • If you subscribe to an openlist, your acceptance is automatic as long as you have formatted the request properly. • Some mailing lists provide an option for receiving messagedigests, in which several postings are grouped into a single e-mail message to help reduce the number of messages you receive from the list. • Some lists let you temporarily stop receiving messages and resume service at a later date (during vacations, etc.). New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  19. Subscribing to a Mailing List • The clerical functions of a list server are automated and they respond to requests in preprogrammed ways. • When you subscribe to a mailing list, the list server confirms the e-mail address you typed with the header that is included with your e-mail message. • Some list servers also request your first and last names in the subscribe command so they can add your name to the membership log. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  20. Subscribing to a Mailing List • When you subscribe to a mailing list, be sure to check the documentation you find and follow the instructions carefully. • If you submit an incorrect subscription request, the list server returns a message with information about why it could not process it. • On high-volume lists, the list server might send you a confirmation message that you must return so it can confirm your e-mail address before you are officially added to the list. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  21. Subscribing to a Mailing List • You will receive a message confirming your membership in the list once the list server has accepted and processed your subscription request. • You should keep the confirmationmessage in a safe place because it contains valuable information about how to leave the mailing list, special features of the list, and other list details. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  22. Posting a Message toa Mailing List • People interact with mailing lists by posting messages. • When you post a message, the list server receives the message, sends it to the list moderator for approval (if necessary), and then forwards the message to every e-mail address on the mailing list. • Messages that you post should be consistent with the list members’ interests. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  23. Posting a Message toa Mailing List • When sending a message to a mailing list, remember to use the correct e-mail address (list address or administrative address). • When you click the Reply button on a message you have received from the list, you are responding to the list server, which forwards your message to the mailing list subscribers. • If you want to respond to only the message’s sender, you will need to copy the sender’s address from his or her message, and then paste it into the To field. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  24. Reading a Mailing List’sArchived Files • Many list servers file every message received by the list in an archive, although the list server might delete the messages periodically to recover disk space. • You may send a request for the messages from a particular time frame or send a command to search the archive for messages on a particular topic. • You must retrieve or locate a list of available archive filenames and data. • You then request the list server to send you or display one or more of the named files. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  25. Identifying a MailingList’s Members • Some mailing lists support a command that lets you receive information about the people subscribed to a mailing list. • The administrator who controls the list, known as the list owner, has the option of making the mailing list members’ information available when you use the review command. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  26. Concealing Your InformationFrom a Mailing List • If you want to be a member of a list, but do not want other members to have access to your name and e-mail address, you can conceal your membership. • A list’s owner can review all members’ names and e-mail addresses, regardless of whether list members have concealed their individual names and e-mail addresses. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  27. Concealing Your InformationFrom a Mailing List • Create a new e-mail message, and type the list’s administrative address in the To field. Leave the Cc, Bcc, and Subject fields blank. • Type the set listname conceal command (or the set listname conceal yes command) in the message area, replacing the list’s name for listname. • If necessary, delete your signature, and then send the message. • If you decide that you want your name to appear again, follow the same steps but substitute nonconceal in place of conceal in the set command. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  28. Leaving a Mailing List • When you leave a mailing list, also referred to as dropping the mailing list or unsubscribing from the mailing list, you will stop receiving messages. • You send your unsubscribe message to the list’s administrative address and include the unsubscribe (or signoff) command, followed by the list’s name. • Before dropping a mailing list, check the mailing list’s confirmation message to determine the proper command to use. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  29. Usenet Newsgroups • Usenet was founded in 1979 at Duke University as a way of collecting information and storing that information by topic category. • The topic categories on Usenet originally were called newsgroups or forums. • Another popular term used is InternetDiscussionGroup. • Each site that participates in Usenet has the option of selecting which newsgroups it will carry. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  30. Usenet Newsgroups • Usenet was one of the first large, distributedinformationdatabases in the world. • A distributeddatabase is stored in multiple physical locations, with portions of the database replicated in different locations. • Newsgroups are similar to mailing lists in that they accept messages from users and make them generally available to other users. • A Newsgroup stores articles on a server as articles or postings that are sorted by topic. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  31. Usenet Newsgroups • Users who are interested in learning about a particular topic can connect to the network and read the posted newsgroup articles. • Newsgroups are more suitable for discussions of broad topics that might interest a large audience because they do not require a list server to send a separate e-mail message to each potential article. • When users read Usenet articles to which they would like to respond, they can reply to those articles. • Some newsgroups have a moderator who reviews all postings before they appear in the newsgroup. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  32. Usenet Structure • The server that stores a newsgroup is called a news server. • The collection of news servers connected to the Internet make up Usenet. • There is no central control authority. • When a user posts an article to a Usenet newsgroup, it is routed to the news server designated to maintain that newsgroup. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  33. Usenet Structure • News servers connect to other news servers periodically and compare a list of the articles that each is currently storing. • Each newsgroup article has a unique identification number that makes this comparison possible. • This store-and-forward process is called obtaining a newsfeed. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  34. Usenet Structure • Each news server site employs a news administrator, who specifies which other news servers will be newsfeed providers and newsfeed recipients. • Most newsfeeds occur over the Internet using the Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP). • Organizations that operate news servers include most ISPs, universities, large businesses, government units, and other entities connected to the Internet. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  35. Newsgroup Hierarchies • Newsgroups are organized into topical hierarchies in which each newsgroup has a unique name that shows its position and classification in the hierarchy. • Top-level hierarchies are shown as the first part of a newsgroup’s name and then the subcategories follow. The names are separated by periods. • The original Usenet News Service included eight main top-level categories—including one miscellaneous category. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  36. Newsgroup Hierarchies New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  37. biz biz.books biz.general biz.marketplace biz.digital biz.comp biz.marketplace.international biz.marketplace.services biz.marketplace.computers biz.marketplace.discussion biz.marketplace.non-computer biz.marketplace.computers.discussion biz.marketplace.computers.pc-clone biz.marketplace.computers.mac biz.marketplace.computers.workstation Portion Of The Hierarchical Structure Of The “biz” Category New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  38. Web Access to Newsgroups • Newsreaders were programs designed for the sole purpose of communicating with news server computers. • Most e-mail programs include newsreader features. • The most recent improvement in Usenet accessibility has been the increase in the number of Web sites that archive newsgroup articles. • Tile.net is one of many Internet Web sites that maintains a comprehensive list of Usenet newsgroups in its databases. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  39. Goggle Groups Directory • The Google Groups directory is an advertiser-supported Web site that offers many useful tools for accessing Usenet newsgroups. • Google Group does not delete newsgroup articles. • Google Groups has stored over 700 million newsgroup articles dating from 1981 in its database. • The Google Groups site has a search engine that allows you to query its newsgroup article database by subject, newsgroup name, or article author. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  40. search text box Usenet categories click to display all groups Goggle Groups Directory New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  41. Using a Newsreader • The Google Groups Web site includes a built-in newsreader that you can use to view articles. • Microsoft and Netscape both include newsreader software in their e-mail programs. • Outlook Express includes a built-in newsreader that you can access from Internet Explorer or by starting Outlook Express. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  42. Newsgroup SubscriptionsDialog Box lists new newsgroups on your news server type searchtext here lists newsgroups to which you have subscribed newsgroups availableon your news server(your list will differ) New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  43. Using a Newsreader • The Newsgroup Subscriptions dialog box lets you view all the newsgroups on your news server, only those to which you have subscribed, or new newsgroups. • The tabs in the NewsgroupSubscriptions dialog box let you control which newsgroups you are viewing. • You can use the Displaynewsgroups which contain text box in the newsgroup Subscriptions dialog box to search for a newsgroup by name. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  44. Using a Newsreader • The Netscape Mail newsreader is included with the Netscape Communicator software suite as part of the Netscape Mail program. • To use the newsreader, you start Mail. • Posting and reading articles using the newsreader is the same as sending and reading e-mail messages. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  45. Summary • There are resources on the Web which allow you to receive and reply to e-mail messages related to a specific topic and to find newsgroups on desired topics. • You can use a newsreader to subscribe to a newsgroup, read and reply to its articles, and post a new article. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7

  46. Summary • Mailing lists and newsgroups are an excellent way to gain knowledge and insight from people around the world who share your interests. • You should be able to find an online community to answer your questions. New Perspectives on the Internet, 4e Tutorial 7