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Baikal Neutrino Telescope – an underwater laboratory for astroparticle physics and environmental studies. N. Budnev, Irkutsk State University. For the Baikal Collaboration. BAIKAL - Collaboration Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow, Russia. Irkutsk State University, Russia.
an underwater laboratory for
astroparticle physics and
N. Budnev, Irkutsk State University.
For the Baikal Collaboration
E0102-72.3Messengers from the Universe
Electromagnetic & hadronic cascades
~ 5 m
CCe + Neutral Current
Charged Current (CC) 1960 - M. Markov: High Energy neutrino detection in natural transparent media (ocean water, ice):
p blazar jet
3 6 9
TeV PeV EeV
have been operated in Lake Baikal since 1998.
Why Lake Baikal?
Length – 720 km, width – 30-50 km, depth -1300-1640 m
20% of kind fresh water
Winches used for deployment
10-Neutrino Telescope NT200
1-4 cable lines
We look for upward going muons
At the 1km depth :
(dt = t52-t53)
Amplitude (Chan 12)
Reconstructed m’s :
cos ( )
April1998 - February 2003 years, 1038 days,462 events.
Threshold – 15 GeV
+ b + b
C + +
W + + W -
Detection area of NT-200 for vertically up-going muons
detection (after all cuts)Search for WIMP Neutrinos from the Center of the Earth
Limit on excess neutrino induced upwardmuon flux 90% c.l. limits from the Earth ( 1038 days NT200 livetime, E> 10 GeV )WIMP Neutrinos from the Center of the Earth
1038 days livetime NT200 (1998 -2003)
48 evts - experiment
73.1evts- prediction without oscillations
56.6 evts - prediction with oscillations
3.6 evts - atm. Muons (backgraund)
Systematic uncertainties: 24%
Within statistical and systematic uncertainties 48 detected events are compatible with the expected background induced by atmospheric neutrinos with oscillations.
g = 137/2, n = 1.33
90% C.L. upper limit on the flux of fast monopole (1003 livedays)
Search for fast monopoles (b > 0.8)
Event selection criteria:
hit channel multiplicity - Nhi t> 35 ch,
upward-going monopole -
(zi-z)(ti-t)/(tz) > 0.45 & o
Background - atmospheric muons
Limit on a flux of relativistic monopoles:F < 4.6 10-17 cm-2 sec-1 sr-1
The 90% C.L. Limits Obtained With
NT-200 (1038 days)
DIFFUSE NEUTRINO FLUX
(Ф~ E-2, 10 TeV < E < 104 TeV)
ne n nt= 1 2 0 (AGN)
ne n nt= 1 1 1 (Earth)
BaikalE2 Фn< 8.1 ·10-7GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1
AMANDA E2 Фn< 8.6 ·10-7GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1
( E = 6.3 PeV, s = 5.3 ·10-31 cm2 )
BaikalФne < 3.3 · 10-20 (cm2 · s · sr ·GeV )-1
AMANDAФne < 5.0 · 10-20 (cm2 · s · sr ·GeV )-1
Experimentalimits and theoretical predictions
Astropart. Phys. 25 (2006) 140
Laser intensity - cascade energy:
(1012 – 5 1013 ) g/puls- (10 – 500) PeV
Foto from Mar, 2005, 4km off-shore:
NT200+ deployment from 1m thick ice.
2005: NT200+ - intermediate stage to Gigaton Volume Detector (km3 scale)iscommissioned in Lake Baikal
Main physics goal:
Energy spectrum of all flavor
(E > 100 TeV)
Basic criteria of PM selection is its effective sensitivity to Cherenkov light which depends on
Photocathode area Quantum efficiency Collection efficiency
Quantum efficiency 0.15
Quantum efficiency 0.20
Quantum efficiency 0.24
PM selection: Underwater tests (2007)
4 PM R8055 (Hamamatsu) и 2 XP1807 (Photonis)
were installed to NT200+ detector (April 2007).
4 PM: central telescope
2 PM R8055: outer string, FADC prototype.
Smaller size (R8055, XP1807) tends to be compensated by higher photocathode sensitivities.
Relative effective sensitivities of large area PMs R8055/13” , XP1807/12” and Quasar-370/14.6”. Laboratory measurements (squares), in-situ tests (dots).
FADC unit is operating now
in Tunka EAS 1 km2detector
& Power 12 V
frequency band at different depths
Example of bipolar pulse
Energy dependence of expected acoustic
signal amplitudes from cascades
Absorption length of acoustic signal in water
2. In addition to existing intermediate scale underwater/underice neutrino detectors in near future should be constructed a few KM3 Cherenkov arrays.
3. Baikal is complementary to Amanda/IcaCube: location, water (low scattering), reconstruction
4. The Baikal Telescope NT200 is in operation since 1998 and Lake Baikal is one of the most suitable place in the world for deployment of huge KM3 neutrino telescope
5. R&D on Gigaton Volume Detector (km3-size array on Lake Baikal) on the base of experience of NT200+ operation is in progress.
6. New participants and collaborators are highly appreciated, welcome!!!!!!
is so kind?
Why conditions for
life are so good?
Length – 720 km,
20% of fresh water
The water body
of the lake is
Several hundred endemic species
Inhabit all depths of the lake
These is only
the high rate
of temperature of
Epilimnion (0-40 m)
Thermocline (2-150 m)
Hypolimnion (30m –
TMD = 3.9839 - 1.9911∙10-2 ∙ P - 5.822 ∙ 10-6 ∙ P2 - (0.2219 + 1.106 ∙ 10-4 ∙ P) ∙S
on 0.1 degree
The photon flux density I(photon cm-2 s-1) = (3.5+/- 1) N
The luminescence is a natural indicator of development of
hydrobiological and hydrophysical phenomena in the Lake Baikal.
Counting rate of the 3 optical modules of NT-200 situated
Мелозира байкальская - Aulacoseira baicalensis
y = cos(23t/11)
Welcome to Lake Baikal