The molecular components of nutrient exchange in arbuscular mycorrhizal am interactions
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The molecular components of nutrient exchange in arbuscular mycorrhizal am interactions

The Molecular Components of Nutrient Exchange in ArbuscularMycorrhizal (AM) interactions.


The molecular components of nutrient exchange in arbuscular mycorrhizal am interactions

  • Arbuscularmycorrhizas, or AM (formerly known as vesicular-arbuscularmycorrhizas, or VAM), are mycorrhizas whose hyphae enter into the plant cells, producing structures that are either balloon-like (vesicles) or dichotomously branching invaginations (arbuscules).


Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae
Vesicular Arbuscularmycorrhizae

  • VAM is a type of mycorrhiza in which the fungus penetrates the cortical cells of the roots of a vascular plant.

  • characterized by the formation of unique structures, arbuscules and vesicles by fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota (VAM fungi).


The molecular components of nutrient exchange in arbuscular mycorrhizal am interactions

  • VAM fungi help plants to capture nutrients such as phosphorus, sulfur, nitrogen and micronutrients from the soil. 

  • It is believed that the development of the arbuscularmycorrhizal symbiosis played a crucial role in the initial colonisation of land by plants and in the evolution of the vascular plants.


The molecular components of nutrient exchange in arbuscular mycorrhizal am interactions

  • VAM – much less known about these associations than about phosphorus, ectomycorrhizae.

  • Appear to be the most common type of mycorrhizal association with respect to the number of plant species that form them

  • Found in species in all divisions of terrestrial plants – widely distributed in annuals, perennials, temperate and tropical trees, crop and wild plants

  • Estimated to occur on 300,000 plant spp.


Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
Arbuscular phosphorus, mycorrhizal fungi 

  • All are in the Zygomycota in the Glomales – or newly proposed phylum Glomeromycota

  • Include 130 species in 6 genera 

  • All are obligate biotrophs


The molecular components of nutrient exchange in arbuscular mycorrhizal am interactions


Arbuscules
Arbuscules phosphorus,

  • Surrounded by plant cell membrane

  • Typically disintegrate after ca 2 weeks in plant cell and release nutrients

  • Thought to be site of nutrient exchange


Vesicles
Vesicles phosphorus,

  • Intercellular hyphae may also form large swellings – vesicles – at ends of hyphae or in

  • Typically rich in lipids & thought to be involved in storagetercalary


The molecular components of nutrient exchange in arbuscular mycorrhizal am interactions

  • Arbuscular phosphorus, mycorrhizaeis not as well characterized as ectomycorrhizae.

  • Root is not altered in morphology – difficult to determine when roots are infected – must clear and stain followed by microscopic examination

  • Fungi are obligate biotrophs – cannot be grown in axenic culture – so difficult to conduct experiments


Interaction
Interaction phosphorus,

  • Fungus receives organic nutrition from plant – since they are biotrophs, don’t know what their requirements are

  • Fungus produces extramatricalhyphae that take up inorganic nutrients from soil – particularly P, may also supply N as they may produce proteinases

  • Increase drought tolerance – many common desert plants are heavily mycorrhizal

  • May also increase resistance to root pathogens


Effect of am
Effect of AM phosphorus,

  • Growth of plants that are infected better – particularly if soil is poor in nutrients


Roles of am in plant phosphorus nutrition
Roles of AM in Plant Phosphorus Nutrition phosphorus,

  • Interaction between pathways of Phosphorus uptake in AM roots have important implications for understanding and manipulating plant phosphorus acquisition.


The molecular components of nutrient exchange in arbuscular mycorrhizal am interactions


The molecular components of nutrient exchange in arbuscular mycorrhizal am interactions

  • Possible regions of the root, different cell types, and different Pi transporters. signaling events in AM roots based on studies of Pi starvation in nonmycorrhizalplants.