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Stop and Ponder!. During the last 20 years in America some believe that the gap between the rich and the poor has widened. Do you believe that this is a true statement? Explain with examples. The French Revolution 1789 Unit 3. France 1789. The 3 Estates.

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Stop and ponder
Stop and Ponder!

  • During the last 20 years in America some believe that the gap between the rich and the poor has widened. Do you believe that this is a true statement? Explain with examples.

The 3 estates
The 3 Estates

  • Late 18th Century, French Society divided into 3 Estates (classes)

  • 1st Estate

  • Church (owned 10% of the land) paid no taxes

  • 2nd Estate

  • Nobles (owned 20% of the Land) paid no taxes

  • 3rd Estate

  • Everybody Else paid all taxes

The 3 estates con t

1st Estate


1% of French Society

2nd Estate

Wealthy Nobles

2% of French Society

3rd Estate

Everybody Else

Mostly Peasants

97% of French Society

Paid all taxes

The 3 Estates (con’t)

Breakdown of the 3 rd estate


(merchants and artisans):

They were well-educated

believed strongly in the ideas of Enlightenment philosophers

Wage laborers

(cooks, servants etc.):

paid low wages and often out of work


(formed 80% of France’s population):

they paid half of their incomes in dues to

nobles, tithes to the church, and taxes to the king

Breakdown of the 3rd Estate

Who s above all the estates king louis xvi 16 th
Who’s Above All the Estates?King Louis XVI (16th)

King louis xvi
King Louis XVI

  • 1780’s French King was Louis XVI, great grandson of King Louis XIV “Sun King”

  • Lived in the Palace of Versailles

Forces of Change

in French Society







Enlightenment ideas
Enlightenment Ideas

  • Enlightenment:

    New views about the nature of political

    power and the role of government

    people began to see government role to help the

    people be

    Happy and harmonious, not oppressive

    people began to see themselves as the

    source of governments’ power, not God

    (reject Divine Right)

Enlightenment ideas con t
Enlightenment Ideas (con’t)

  • Economic Problems

    France population was expanding rapidly in the late 1700’s

    heavy taxes made it impossible for people to make any


    King Louis XVI kept taxing the people to pay

    for his debts and elaborate lifestyle

Enlightenment ideas con t1
Enlightenment Ideas (con’t)

Weak Leadership

King Louis XVI allowed problems to linger: He paid no attention to

his advisors

Louis put off dealing with France’s economic problems

until France became bankrupt

Queen marie antoinette con t
Queen Marie Antoinette (con’t)

  • Louis’ wife Marie Antoinette was hated by the French people:

    because she was Austrian (France’s enemy at the time)

    because she spent so much money on jewels and gifts

Estates general
Estates General

  • Not until it was too late did Louis finally do something

  • May 5, 1789 King Louis XVI called for the Estates General

  • a meeting of representatives from all three estates to discuss tax reform and getting France out of debt

  • This was the first such meeting in France in over 175 years!

Stop and ponder1
Stop and Ponder!

  • Turn to page 192

  • 1. How could such a situation develop in one of the most advanced countries in the world?

  • 2. What could make people angry enough to behead others and carry their heads on poles?

  • 3. How successful could a revolution of peasants be?

The national assembly
The National Assembly

Estates General meeting the first two estates sided with the King: tried to silence members of the third estate (the majority of French society)

  • On June 17, 1789 members of the third estate voted to establish the National Assembly



This vote was the first step of revolution against King Louis XVI and the first two estates

Tennis court oath con t1
Tennis Court Oath (con’t)

  • June 20, 1789:

  • third estate representatives were locked out of their meeting room at the Estates General: they broke down the door to an in-door tennis court

They pledged to stay there until they drew up a new constitution for France

This pledge is called the Tennis Court Oath

Stop and ponder2
Stop and Ponder!

  • Is it ever justifiable to participate in armed revolution against your government? Why or why not? Provide examples.

Declaration of the rights of man
Declaration of the Rights of Man

  • August 27, 1798 the National Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man

    Guaranteed equal justice, freedom of religion and speech

    Influenced by English Bill of Rights

    Next step in the French Revolution

Stop and ponder3
Stop and Ponder!

  • Page 195 Bottom

  • Responding to fine art. Answer the Comparing and contrasting question (bottom-center).

The great fear 1789

Peasants became angry

and decided to strike first

  • Peasants in the countryside

  • heard that nobles hired

  • bandits to terrorize them

  • in the countryside

broke into nobles’

mansions, stole things,

burned records of their debts,

burned mansions

Revolution spreads

From Paris into

French countryside

The Great Fear 1789

Bread riots 1789
Bread Riots 1789

October 1789 6,000 women in Paris rioted over the price of bread

They then marched on the palace of

Versailles and killed two guards

They demanded the King and Queen leave their palace of Versailles and return to Paris (13 miles)

This signaled the change of power from the King to the people

The legislative assembly

The National Assembly created a limited

Constitutional Monarchy

The National Assembly

handed its power over to the newly formed

Legislative Assembly.

September 1791 the National Assembly

completed a

new constitution

new constitution stripped the King of his

power: gave Legislative Assembly

power to create laws

The Legislative Assembly had the

power to create laws

Legislative Assembly had power

to approve/disapprove

of any wars the King declared on other nations

The Legislative Assembly

Legislative Assembly

Divided into 3 groups


opposed the King,

wanted sweeping


(Left Wing)


wanted some changes

in society,

not as many

as radicals



wanted limited


wanted few

changes in society

(Right Wing)

The emigres
The Emigres

Nobles and clergymen who fled France during the peasant uprisings.

They hoped to undo the Revolution and restore the old regime

The sans culottes

wage laborers and small shop-keepers from Paris

They wanted a greater voice in government, lower food prices, and an end to food shortages

Did not get a voice in government but they found a way to exert their will in government: by influencing a political party that later seized control of France (the Jacobins)

The Sans-Culottes

The jacobins
The Jacobins

  • Formed an alliance with the Sans-Culottes

  • Jacobins: extreme radical revolutionaries, wanted to end the monarchy and establish representative democracy(The people vote for elected officials to establish laws)

  • They eventually do take over the Legislative Assembly and the whole government

The reign of terror
The Reign of Terror

  • The Guillotine Page 201

Maximilien robespierre
Maximilien Robespierre

  • Maniac leader of the Committee of Public Safety: responsible for tens of thousands of deaths

Stop and ponder4
Stop and Ponder!

  • 1. Who led the Committee of Public Safety?

  • 2. Who were the Sans-Culottes?

  • 3. What year did the Bread Riots occur?

The reign of terror1
The Reign of Terror

July 1793-July 1794

A Group of 15 Jacobins take over the French Government:

The Committee of Public Safety

Led By Maximilien Robespierre

Publicly Executed anyone they deemed an enemy of the revolution (no trials)

Reign of terror con t
Reign of Terror (con’t)

  • Impact

  • Over 40,000 people killed in one year

    75%+ of those killed from 3rd Estate! (The Revolution was supposed to be for them!

Reign of terror con t1
Reign of Terror (con’t)

  • Death of King Louis XVI

  • January 21, 1793 Louis publicly executed by the Jacobins; Marie Antoinette executed 10/16/1793

Death of robespierre
Death of Robespierre

  • Eventually the public withdrew support of Robespierre: too many senseless killings

  • Other members of the Committee of Public Safety wanted to kill him before he killed them

  • July 28, 1794 Robespierre publicly executed in Paris

  • His death signals the end of the Reign of Terror

The directory
The Directory

  • After the Reign of Terror a new group of 5 Moderates take over the government: The Directory

  • The people wanted new less violent leadership

  • The Directory rules France from November 1795-November 1799

  • The Directory was ineffective and

    corrupt: allowed for

    ________to eventually take over……