feline panleukopenia infection in an asian palm civet n.
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Feline Panleukopenia Infection in an Asian Palm Civet. CPB 860 Virology Group 6. Feline Panleukopenia Virus. Family Parvoviridae Single-stranded DNA virus Related to: Mink enteritis virus Raccoon Parvovirus Canine Parvovirus Blue Fox Parvovirus. Host. Asian Palm Civet

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feline panleukopenia virus
Feline Panleukopenia Virus
  • Family Parvoviridae
  • Single-stranded DNA virus
    • Related to:
      • Mink enteritis virus
      • Raccoon Parvovirus
      • Canine Parvovirus
      • Blue Fox Parvovirus
  • Asian Palm Civet
  • Common Palm Civet aka “toddy cat”
  • (Paradoxurushermaphroditus)
  • Family Viverridae
  • Native to South-East Asia and southern China
  • Subject was free-roaming from Malaysia
chief concerns clinical signs
Chief Concerns & Clinical Signs
  • Systemic clinical signs
    • Lethargy
    • Diarrhea
    • Vomiting
    • Mortality – 50 hours after arrival in Hungary
  • Postmortem
    • Dehydration
    • Anemia
    • Enteritis
    • Enlargement of abdominal lymph nodes
    • Splenomegaly
diagnostic tests
Diagnostic Tests
  • Necropsy and Histology
    • Tissue from spleen, duodenum, and abdominal mesenteric lymph nodes during necropsy
      • Stained with H & E for assessment
  • PCR and GenBank/BLAST
  • Transmission Electron Microscopy
    • Fecal sample diluted 1:3 with water


  • Electron microscopic examination of the fecal sample revealed presence of numerous round viral particles that measure 18-21 nm in diameter
  • PCR- Presence of the feline parvovirus genome
  • Histopathology reveals focal necrosis of the mucous membrane in the small intestine, shortening of the intestinal villi, marked infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells and presence of well-differentiated, basophilic nuclear inclusion bodies in the epithelial cells of the duodenum and jejunum
  • Histopathology also shows severe lymphoid depletion in the spleen and other lymphoid organs
  • Severe enlargement of a mesenteric lymph node
  • Dilation of blood vessels
  • Hyperemic intestinal loops

Intestinal villi with the presence if basophilic inclusion body

Histopath changes in the small intestine suggesting parvovirus infection and inflammatory cell infiltration

diagnostic tests1
Diagnostic Tests
  • PCR
    • Tissue samples were homogenized
    • Viral DNA was isolated with QIAmp DNA Minikit
    • Electrophoresis with fluorescent markers
    • Viral DNA was then sequenced
    • Genome sequence deposited into GenBankand searched using BLAST

Genomic Results

  • Nuclei acid sequence compared to 2 samples of FPV collected from cats in Hungary
    • Both were > 99.43 % in identical genomic sequence
    • One of strains isolated from a cat in Hungary similar to strains of FPV found in Argentina
  • Results did not provide insight if the civet was infected in Malaysia or Hungary
tem with negative contrast
TEM with negative contrast
  • Viral particles from fecal sample had morphologic characteristics of the Parvoviridae family
  • Parvo virus infection is self-limiting and will resolve itself as long as the animal is maintained through the period of clinical signs
  • Supportive care to treat dehydration and electrolyte imbalance
  • Prevent or treat secondary bacterial infections with antibiotics
  • Anti-emetics to alleviate vomiting
  • During this period, nothing (including treatment) should be given per-os due to the widespread destruction of the intestinal villi
  • Blood transfusion if severe anemia or at risk of developing DIC

* If treated for FPV



  • Vaccination is Key
  • In the absence of maternal antibodies, a single modified live vaccine can produce protection within 3-5 days
  • Re-vaccination required, especially in high risk situations
  • Standard: Vaccinate every 1-3 years to boost titers
  • Both inactivated-adjuvanted and modified live vaccines are available; modified live vaccines may produce disease in captive, non-domesticated animals and typically not recommended
  • Others:
  • Improved husbandry
  • Strict isolation of naïve populations
  • Control can be managed with quarantine for at least 30 days
why worry about a dead civet
Why Worry About a Dead Civet?
  • Answer: Kopi Luwak
    • Beans of coffee berries once they have been defecated by the Asian Palm Civet
    • Valued for its rarity rather than taste
      • $100- $600 / lb in the US
      • Described as “less acidic and thin”
  • Farming methods include cages and force-fed coffee berries
  • Transport to Hungary for profit?
  • Greene, CE. Infectious disease of the dog and cat. Fourth Ed. Saunders: St. Louis, pg80-87
  • Parvovirus; American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Infectious Disease Committee Manual 2013
  • The Merck Veterinary Manual: 2011. Bovine Viral Diarrhea and Mucosal Disease Complex. http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/22103.htm
  • Z. Demeter, et. al: 2009. Feline parvovirus infection in an Asian palm civet (Paradoxurushermaphroditus). Veterinary Record 164: 213-215.
  • Basic Local Alignment Sequence Tool http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi
  • http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/18/world/asia/18civetcoffee.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
the end
The End
  • Questions?