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Feline Panleukopenia Infection in an Asian Palm Civet. CPB 860 Virology Group 6. Feline Panleukopenia Virus. Family Parvoviridae Single-stranded DNA virus Related to: Mink enteritis virus Raccoon Parvovirus Canine Parvovirus Blue Fox Parvovirus. Host. Asian Palm Civet

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feline panleukopenia virus
Feline Panleukopenia Virus
  • Family Parvoviridae
  • Single-stranded DNA virus
    • Related to:
      • Mink enteritis virus
      • Raccoon Parvovirus
      • Canine Parvovirus
      • Blue Fox Parvovirus
slide3
Host
  • Asian Palm Civet
  • Common Palm Civet aka “toddy cat”
  • (Paradoxurushermaphroditus)
  • Family Viverridae
  • Native to South-East Asia and southern China
  • Subject was free-roaming from Malaysia
chief concerns clinical signs
Chief Concerns & Clinical Signs
  • Systemic clinical signs
    • Lethargy
    • Diarrhea
    • Vomiting
    • Mortality – 50 hours after arrival in Hungary
  • Postmortem
    • Dehydration
    • Anemia
    • Enteritis
    • Enlargement of abdominal lymph nodes
    • Splenomegaly
diagnostic tests
Diagnostic Tests
  • Necropsy and Histology
    • Tissue from spleen, duodenum, and abdominal mesenteric lymph nodes during necropsy
      • Stained with H & E for assessment
  • PCR and GenBank/BLAST
  • Transmission Electron Microscopy
    • Fecal sample diluted 1:3 with water
results

RESULTS

  • Electron microscopic examination of the fecal sample revealed presence of numerous round viral particles that measure 18-21 nm in diameter
  • PCR- Presence of the feline parvovirus genome
  • Histopathology reveals focal necrosis of the mucous membrane in the small intestine, shortening of the intestinal villi, marked infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells and presence of well-differentiated, basophilic nuclear inclusion bodies in the epithelial cells of the duodenum and jejunum
  • Histopathology also shows severe lymphoid depletion in the spleen and other lymphoid organs
necropsy
Necropsy
  • Severe enlargement of a mesenteric lymph node
  • Dilation of blood vessels
  • Hyperemic intestinal loops
histology
Histology

Intestinal villi with the presence if basophilic inclusion body

Histopath changes in the small intestine suggesting parvovirus infection and inflammatory cell infiltration

diagnostic tests1
Diagnostic Tests
  • PCR
    • Tissue samples were homogenized
    • Viral DNA was isolated with QIAmp DNA Minikit
    • Electrophoresis with fluorescent markers
    • Viral DNA was then sequenced
    • Genome sequence deposited into GenBankand searched using BLAST
slide10

Genomic Results

  • Nuclei acid sequence compared to 2 samples of FPV collected from cats in Hungary
    • Both were > 99.43 % in identical genomic sequence
    • One of strains isolated from a cat in Hungary similar to strains of FPV found in Argentina
  • Results did not provide insight if the civet was infected in Malaysia or Hungary
tem with negative contrast
TEM with negative contrast
  • Viral particles from fecal sample had morphologic characteristics of the Parvoviridae family
treatment
TREATMENT *
  • Parvo virus infection is self-limiting and will resolve itself as long as the animal is maintained through the period of clinical signs
  • Supportive care to treat dehydration and electrolyte imbalance
  • Prevent or treat secondary bacterial infections with antibiotics
  • Anti-emetics to alleviate vomiting
  • During this period, nothing (including treatment) should be given per-os due to the widespread destruction of the intestinal villi
  • Blood transfusion if severe anemia or at risk of developing DIC

* If treated for FPV

slide13

PREVENTION AND CONTROL

  • Vaccination is Key
  • In the absence of maternal antibodies, a single modified live vaccine can produce protection within 3-5 days
  • Re-vaccination required, especially in high risk situations
  • Standard: Vaccinate every 1-3 years to boost titers
  • Both inactivated-adjuvanted and modified live vaccines are available; modified live vaccines may produce disease in captive, non-domesticated animals and typically not recommended
  • Others:
  • Improved husbandry
  • Strict isolation of naïve populations
  • Control can be managed with quarantine for at least 30 days
why worry about a dead civet
Why Worry About a Dead Civet?
  • Answer: Kopi Luwak
    • Beans of coffee berries once they have been defecated by the Asian Palm Civet
    • Valued for its rarity rather than taste
      • $100- $600 / lb in the US
      • Described as “less acidic and thin”
  • Farming methods include cages and force-fed coffee berries
  • Transport to Hungary for profit?
results1
Results
  • Greene, CE. Infectious disease of the dog and cat. Fourth Ed. Saunders: St. Louis, pg80-87
  • Parvovirus; American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Infectious Disease Committee Manual 2013
  • The Merck Veterinary Manual: 2011. Bovine Viral Diarrhea and Mucosal Disease Complex. http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/22103.htm
  • Z. Demeter, et. al: 2009. Feline parvovirus infection in an Asian palm civet (Paradoxurushermaphroditus). Veterinary Record 164: 213-215.
  • Basic Local Alignment Sequence Tool http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi
  • http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/18/world/asia/18civetcoffee.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
the end
The End
  • Questions?