Feline PanleukopeniaInfection in an Asian Palm Civet CPB 860 Virology Group 6
Feline Panleukopenia Virus • Family Parvoviridae • Single-stranded DNA virus • Related to: • Mink enteritis virus • Raccoon Parvovirus • Canine Parvovirus • Blue Fox Parvovirus
Host • Asian Palm Civet • Common Palm Civet aka “toddy cat” • (Paradoxurushermaphroditus) • Family Viverridae • Native to South-East Asia and southern China • Subject was free-roaming from Malaysia
Chief Concerns & Clinical Signs • Systemic clinical signs • Lethargy • Diarrhea • Vomiting • Mortality – 50 hours after arrival in Hungary • Postmortem • Dehydration • Anemia • Enteritis • Enlargement of abdominal lymph nodes • Splenomegaly
Diagnostic Tests • Necropsy and Histology • Tissue from spleen, duodenum, and abdominal mesenteric lymph nodes during necropsy • Stained with H & E for assessment • PCR and GenBank/BLAST • Transmission Electron Microscopy • Fecal sample diluted 1:3 with water
RESULTS • Electron microscopic examination of the fecal sample revealed presence of numerous round viral particles that measure 18-21 nm in diameter • PCR- Presence of the feline parvovirus genome • Histopathology reveals focal necrosis of the mucous membrane in the small intestine, shortening of the intestinal villi, marked infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells and presence of well-differentiated, basophilic nuclear inclusion bodies in the epithelial cells of the duodenum and jejunum • Histopathology also shows severe lymphoid depletion in the spleen and other lymphoid organs
Necropsy • Severe enlargement of a mesenteric lymph node • Dilation of blood vessels • Hyperemic intestinal loops
Histology Intestinal villi with the presence if basophilic inclusion body Histopath changes in the small intestine suggesting parvovirus infection and inflammatory cell infiltration
Diagnostic Tests • PCR • Tissue samples were homogenized • Viral DNA was isolated with QIAmp DNA Minikit • Electrophoresis with fluorescent markers • Viral DNA was then sequenced • Genome sequence deposited into GenBankand searched using BLAST
Genomic Results • Nuclei acid sequence compared to 2 samples of FPV collected from cats in Hungary • Both were > 99.43 % in identical genomic sequence • One of strains isolated from a cat in Hungary similar to strains of FPV found in Argentina • Results did not provide insight if the civet was infected in Malaysia or Hungary
TEM with negative contrast • Viral particles from fecal sample had morphologic characteristics of the Parvoviridae family
TREATMENT * • Parvo virus infection is self-limiting and will resolve itself as long as the animal is maintained through the period of clinical signs • Supportive care to treat dehydration and electrolyte imbalance • Prevent or treat secondary bacterial infections with antibiotics • Anti-emetics to alleviate vomiting • During this period, nothing (including treatment) should be given per-os due to the widespread destruction of the intestinal villi • Blood transfusion if severe anemia or at risk of developing DIC * If treated for FPV
PREVENTION AND CONTROL • Vaccination is Key • In the absence of maternal antibodies, a single modified live vaccine can produce protection within 3-5 days • Re-vaccination required, especially in high risk situations • Standard: Vaccinate every 1-3 years to boost titers • Both inactivated-adjuvanted and modified live vaccines are available; modified live vaccines may produce disease in captive, non-domesticated animals and typically not recommended • Others: • Improved husbandry • Strict isolation of naïve populations • Control can be managed with quarantine for at least 30 days
Why Worry About a Dead Civet? • Answer: Kopi Luwak • Beans of coffee berries once they have been defecated by the Asian Palm Civet • Valued for its rarity rather than taste • $100- $600 / lb in the US • Described as “less acidic and thin” • Farming methods include cages and force-fed coffee berries • Transport to Hungary for profit?
Results • Greene, CE. Infectious disease of the dog and cat. Fourth Ed. Saunders: St. Louis, pg80-87 • Parvovirus; American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Infectious Disease Committee Manual 2013 • The Merck Veterinary Manual: 2011. Bovine Viral Diarrhea and Mucosal Disease Complex. http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/22103.htm • Z. Demeter, et. al: 2009. Feline parvovirus infection in an Asian palm civet (Paradoxurushermaphroditus). Veterinary Record 164: 213-215. • Basic Local Alignment Sequence Tool http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi • http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/18/world/asia/18civetcoffee.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
The End • Questions?