Plan for Energy Efficiency of Buildings in the Black Sea Region BSBEEP Activity 2.3 – Calculation of the CarbonFootprint (CF) on municipal level Lucian Georgescu – external expert Municipality of Galati Romania. Carbon Footprint Study Principles.
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Plan for Energy Efficiency of Buildings in the Black Sea RegionBSBEEPActivity 2.3 – Calculation of the CarbonFootprint (CF) on municipal level
Lucian Georgescu – external expert
Municipality of Galati
Definition : "carbon footprint represents the life cycle of GHG emissions caused by the production of goods and services consumed by a population or activity geographically defined, whether if GHG emissions occur inside or outside the geographical boundaries of the population or interest activities." (Larsen & Hertwich, 2009, p. 792)
It is proposed to analyze the carbon footprint just for existing buildings in the city.
GHG emissions from production and consumption perspective
Environmental input-output analysis Expanded
The analysis EEIO emissions reported are related to input-output tables, allowing for direct emissions caused by the production of an entity (product / services) and indirect emissions of its suppliers.
Analysis of life-cycle assessment (LCA PA)
Life cycle assessment is based on a process of analysis with a bottom-up approach to assess the environmental impact of individual products manufactured from the beginning to the end of product life.
Hybrid analysis of type IO-LCA
- tiered hybrid analysis - based on important processes and input - output monetary;
- hybrid analysis based on input-output - important processes are studied by means of input - output monetary data;
- integrated hybrid analysis - system based process is represented in physical units, while the Input - Output in monetary units
As its major advantage, the hybrid approach enables IOA and PA-LCA to complement each other in the same project.
Greenhouse Gas accounting standards on different scales
of application (Wu, W. 2011).
EFE = [(TCE - LPE - GEP) * NEEFE + CO2LPE + CO2GEP] / ( TCE )
EFE = local emission factor for electricity [t/MWhe]
TCE = Total electricity consumption in the local authority [MWhe]
LPE = Local electricity production [MWhe]
GEP = Green electricity purchases by the local authority [MWhe]
NEEFE = National or European emission factor for electricity [t/MWhe]
CO2LPE = CO2 emissions due to the local production of electricity [t]
CO2GEP = CO2 emissions due to the production of certified green electricity [t]
In the exceptional case where the local authority would be a net exporter of electricity, then thecalculation formula would be:
EFE = ( CO2LPE + CO2GEP ) / ( LPE + GEP)Emission factor for electricity consumption
Formula used for emission factor is:
EFH = (CO2LPH + CO2IH – CO2EH) / LHC
A similar formula may apply for cold.
To realize mathematical models, have been studied methodologies presented in UNEP report (United Nation Enviromental Programe) and in those proposed by CM (Covenant of mayors). For the modeling separation, it has been used a color code: for the industrial sector (purple color) and for domestic/private sector (blue color).
Thus, it has been realized 2 mathematical models that can be applied at city/municipality level on various sectors at certain resource consumptions (electricity, heat, fuel consumption), as follows:
Electricity Industrial sector LCA Method
Domestic/Private sector LCA Method
Heat Industrial sector LCA Method
Domestic/Private sector LCA Method
The results of these models (LCA and IO) should be gathered and made an average of them, according to the methodology applied at a city level. This value resulted from the summing up, represents the final result, in order to estimate the carbon footprint of the city due to electricity consumption of industrial sector or domestic/private sector.
After may 2014
Expected results after the implementation of recommendations
made in the project studies