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Daniel Coastland University

Daniel Coastland University

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Daniel Coastland University

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  1. DanielCoastland University Pastor Brett Peterson

  2. Daniel • Daniel = an overview of world history & end times • Two types of prophecy:1.Predictive2.Didactic

  3. Daniel • If you can prove the book of Daniel is authentic, you prove...

  4. without doubt that: • Jesus is the Messiah • God is the author of the Bible • God is in control of human events • The 70th week of Daniel has not happened yet • Only now are events in the world linedup to usher in the end of the age

  5. Prophecy with two fulfillments: • An example of this is the ‘Abomination of Desolation’ of Dan.11:31 & 12:11). Some of this prophecy was fulfilled in 167 BC by Antiochus Epiphanies, yet the rest of Daniels prophecy about the antichrist is yet future - Jesus states this will occur again in the last days (Mk. 13:14,19; Luke 21:24).

  6. Some Facts... • In this office, he was honored with the distinction of serving two great Empires - the Babylonian Empire until its fall in 538 B.C., and then the Empire of the Medes and Persians. • The book of Daniel was written by Daniel between the third year of Jehoiakim’s’s reign, about 606(5)B.C. (1:1) and the first year of Cyrus, about 536 B.C. (1:21). • In the early 1900’s, we uncovered a library in Babylon. The writtings date to 6th century BC. Just recently, through text analysis we discovered that the phrases used by Daniel match those from this era.

  7. The Critics view... • Porphyry, a heretic in the 3rd Century AD., declared the book of Daniel was a forgery, written during the time of Antiochus Epiphanes and the Maccabees (170 B.C.) - almost 400 years after Daniel had lived. • However, the Septuagint, the Greek version of the Old Testament which was written prior to the time of Antiochus Epiphanes (started 285bc) contains the book of Daniel. And the historian Josephus records an incident during the time of Alexander the Great, which supports the early authorship. Also Daniel’s contemporary, Ezekiel, who was with the captives, made reference to the character of Daniel (Ezekiel 14:14,20), and to his office as prophet (Ezekiel 28:3), which is conclusive evidence against the theory that this book belongs to Maccabean period.

  8. Our first response... • The Lord Jesus Christ spoke of Daniel “the prophet” (Matthew 24:15; Mark 13:14). His endorsement is valid and sufficient for every believer whether or not he has examined the argument of the critics. • As mentioned last week, the United Bible Society reports there are over 133 times in the New Testament the authors either quoted Daniel or alluded to this book. • Jesus Himself quotes out of Daniel.

  9. God authenticates Daniel! • The New Testament in Greek and English, published by the American Bible Society in 1966, lists in its index of quotations (pp. 897-907), every chapter of Daniel as being quoted in the New Testament. It also shows that most of the books of the New Testament quote the Book of Daniel. While not every New Testament book cites Daniel, virtually every New Testament author does, including all the gospel writers, Paul, Peter, James, Jude, and the writer to the Hebrews. One-hundred-thirty-three New Testament references were listed here, citing 68 references in Daniel.

  10. The first attack on Daniel... • We accept the fact that Daniel wrote this book between 606bc & 537 bc. This fact has come under criticism by several scholars - the primary evidence they give is: • 1. The use of Hebrew, Greek, and Aramaic in the text. • 2. The position of the book in the Jewish O.T. ( writings not prophecy ). • 3. The theological ideas of the book are too advanced for 537 BC • 4. Daniel could not have predicted events with such accuracy.

  11. Daniel in the Critics Den... • Ez. 14:12-20 Ezekiel, Daniels contemporary speaks of him. • Some writers argue that this "Daniel" could not refer to Ezekiel's contemporary but to the old Canaanite hero Dan'el, whose story is in the Ugaritic legend of Aqhat, who must have been nearly contemporary with Job. • Dan’el of the Aqhat epic is a man who:*was an idol worshiper (El, Baal, etc.)*was a drunk • Daniel is spoken of in high esteem by God in Ezekiel - it is utter ignorance to say this is Dan’el!

  12. Critics & our Response... • ARGUMENT 1: Daniel was not listed among the famous Israelites by Ecclesiasticus 44:1ff. Since this document was in existence by 180 B.C., Daniel must have lived at a time later than 180 B.C. • RESPONSE: Among the Qumran discoveries were manuscripts and fragments from the Book of Daniel. “Since the [Qumran] community was itself Maccabean in origin, it testifies to the way in which Daniel was revered and cited as Scripture in the second century B.C.” Harrison points out that Ecclesiasticus not only omits any direct reference to Daniel, but also to Job and all the Judges except Samuel, as well as Kings Asa and Jehoshaphat. Mordecai and even Ezra himself are also omitted. • NOTE: Josephus records that in 311BC, The high priest showed the book of Daniel to Alexander the Great - Book 11, Chpt. 8

  13. ARGUMENT 2: In the Hebrew Text of the Old Testament, the Book of Daniel is not included in the second section (the prophets), but in the third (the writings). This shows that Daniel was not considered one of the earlier prophets. The book must therefore be a later work. • RESPONSE: In the Septuagint(285bc) (the Greek translation of the Old Testament) Daniel is listed with the prophets, indicating the translators, like Jesus, accepted Daniel as one of the prophets. Daniel was not a typical prophet like Isaiah or Jeremiah. His ministry was more like that of Joseph. Both were interpreters of dreams in a foreign land. Inclusion among the writings does not indicate anything about the date of the book. Job, for example, is included among the writings and is generally regarded to be the oldest book. • The “writings” include Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah and Chronicles.

  14. ARGUMENT 3: The language of the Book of Daniel argues for a late date. Certain Persian and Greek words are used which originated later than the 6th century B.C. The Aramaic used in Daniel is “late” in form. • RESPONSE: Each individual language argument falls apart under scrutiny. The more we learn about the language of Daniel’s day, the more critical arguments collapse. • a.) Alleged Greek loan words • How could such words have been part of the vocabulary of sixth-century B.C. Aramaic in Babylon? Very easily, for the inscriptions of Sargon II (722-705) back in the Assyrian period refer to Greek captives from Cyprus and Ionia sold into slavery. • The celebrated poet Alcaeus of Lesbos (c. 600 B.C.) refers to his brother Antimenidas as serving in the Babylonian army. E.F. Weidner ("Jojachin Konig von Juda," Melanges Syriens 2 [1939]: 923-35) published some Neo-Babylonian ration tablets listing supplies for Ionian carpenters, shipbuilders, and others, along with musicians from Ashkelon.

  15. ARGUMENT 4: Daniel was incorrect when he wrote (1:1) that Nebuchadnezzar’s conquest of Jerusalem occurred in the “third year of Jehoiakim” because Jeremiah spoke of it as being in the “fourth year” (Jeremiah 25:1, 46:2). Daniel’s error can be explained by the fact that he did not live in those days but wrote at a later time. • RESPONSE: It should first be noted that Daniel did not say Nebuchadnezzar defeated Jerusalem in the third year of Jehoiakim, but only that he took certain people captive to Babylon. Secondly, the Palestinian method of reckoning the number of years of a king’s reign from the time of his accession differed from that of the Babylonian method. The Babylonian method did not count the year of a king’s accession; the Palestinian method did. Thus, Daniel (by the Babylonian method) spoke of the event as being in the third year of Jehoiakim’s reign, and Jeremiah (by the Palestinian method) as being in the fourth.

  16. Critical conclusion... • Virtually all of the specific examples of “error” in Daniel vaporize under the scrutiny of investigation and in the light of later and more complete information, such as that provided by language study and the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls at Qumran. • Daniel is a true, inspired book of the Bible and belongs in the canon of Scripture. The facts, the Spirit, the early church, Jesus Christ, the NT authors, and even Josephus all agree. • After the captivity, the language of the Jews ceased to be Hebrew, which necessitated the translation of the Old Testament Scriptures into Greek (this Greek translation of the Old Testament is known as the Septuagint). Only a select few would retain the ability to study the Hebrew Scriptures. The Jews of our Lord’s day spoke a form of Aramaic. The common language in Babylon at the time of Daniel was Aramaic.

  17. Historical Background… • Timeline: during this sixth century B.C., constuction on the Acropolis in Athens begins; Mayan civilization was flourishing in Mexico; Aesop wrote his fables; Confucius and Buddah live; Greek art comes into its own; the Phoenicians make the first known sea journey around Africa; the olive tree is introduced to Italy by Greeks, science began, home loans began, banking, mathematics, museums and libraries spring up, and on I could go!

  18. Characteristics of the book... • (1) The Book of Daniel depicts historical events beginning with the first conquest of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in 605 B.C. and ending in the third year of Cyrus (536 B.C.). • (2) The prophecies of the Book of Daniel encompass time from Daniel’s day to the future establishment of the kingdom of God. • (3) Daniel is written in two languages, not just one. The Book is written in Hebrew and in Aramaic: • Daniel 1:1 - 2:4a-Hebrew language • Daniel 2:4b - 7:28-Aramaic language • Daniel 8:1 - 12:13-Hebrew language

  19. The major themes... • Chapters 1 - 6 Chapters 7 - 12 • The days of Daniel A time future to Daniel • Biographical and historical Prophetic and apocalyptic • History is chronological Prophecy is chronological • Written in the third person Written in the first person • Others have dreams Daniel has dreams • Daniel interprets Another must interpret 1:1-2:4a(Heb.), 2:4b-7:28(Aramaic), 8:1-12:13 (Heb.)

  20. Chiastic Pattern in Aramaic... • 2:4b-49 A Prophecy of four world empires • 3:1-30 B God’s power to deliver his servants (from fiery furnace) • 4:1-37 C God’s judgment on a proud ruler (Nebuchadnezzar) • 5:1-31 C’ God’s judgment on a proud ruler (Belshazzar) • 6:1-28 B’ God’s power to deliver his servant (lion’s den) • 7:1-28 A’ Prophecy of four world empires

  21. Daniel is a product of the exile (606-537 BC) • We know more about Daniel the man that any other prophet. • Three words characterize Daniel’s life;Purpose, Prayer, and Prophecy • He was a man of DiscipleshipDevotionDetermination • Prior to 70AD, Jewish scholars taught Daniel was a prophet. After that they said he wrote fiction.

  22. - Intro cont. & Chpt. 1 • Daniel not only predicts future events, but is a fulfillment of prophecy! II Kings 20:16-18 • The book of Daniel is a witness to God’s sovereignty - and some of the greatest testimony comes from the Babylonian rulers themselves! • During this time, when two nations fought, the gods of those nations were judged also - and the victorious nation’s god was stronger than the nation’s god who lost. • Example - II Kings 18:28-35

  23. In the Septuagent (the Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures), Daniel is placed in the Major Prophets. • The book was written between 605BC & 530-something BC. • All the evidence points to the authenticity of this book, including Jesus’ endorsement.

  24. Theological Value of Daniel • God’s sovereignty • Victorious living as a child of God in a Godless age • The power of prayer • The Messiah’s first appearance and final victory • God’s grace - even to Neb. • The role of Angels in human affairs • The resurrection • The 70th week of Daniel (The Tribulation) • The Anti-christ

  25. Biblical Observations • Daniel is spoken highly of by Ezekiel (Ez.14:12-20; Ez. 28:1-3) and Jesus Himself (Matt.24). • Every chapter is Daniel is quoted in the NT. • Without Daniel, you can not understand eschatology. • Open discussion.What do you want to get out of this class?

  26. Daniel • Dan 1:1 In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah, Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came to Jerusalem and besieged it. • 2 And the Lord delivered Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, along with some of the articles from the temple of God. These he carried off to the temple of his god in Babylonia and put in the treasure house of his god.

  27. Daniel • Dan 1:1 In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah, Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came to Jerusalem and besieged it. • 2 And the Lord delivered Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, along with some of the articles from the temple of God. These he carried off to the temple of his god in Babylonia and put in the treasure house of his god. = 605 BC Pharaoh Neccho defeated at Carchamesh

  28. Daniel • Dan 1:1 In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah, Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came to Jerusalem and besieged it. • 2 And the Lord delivered Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, along with some of the articles from the temple of God. These he carried off to the temple of his god in Babylonia and put in the treasure house of his god.

  29. Daniel • Carchamesh = 605 BC • Again, in BC 597 & 587 Jews rose in revolt and were again subjected and deportations occurred. • Babylonians were ruthless and brutal • See ancient view of divine protection in war • Therefore, defeat in war = your god is weak

  30. Daniel • Imagine their thoughts as the prisoners marched eastward • “Where is God?” • Imagine their thoughts as they entered the greatest city of the ancient world • This Babylonian empire is going to last forever! • Empire: the ultimate statement of human sovereignty and autonomy

  31. Daniel • God gives a series of visions: • God has everything under control! • Mankind can build all his kingdoms, but when they fall into the dust it will be Christ who establishes his eternal kingdom

  32. Daniel And we will reign with Him! • God gives a series of visions: • God has everything under control! • Mankind can build all his kingdoms, but when they fall into the dust it will be Christ who establishes his eternal kingdom

  33. Daniel • Our days vs. Daniel’s day: • A lot that isn’t under control • People of God in full retreat

  34. Daniel • 3 Then the king ordered Ashpenaz, chief of his court officials, to bring in some of the Israelites from the royal family and the nobility--

  35. Daniel • 4 young men without any physical defect, handsome, showing aptitude for every kind of learning, well informed, quick to understand, and qualified to serve in the king's palace. He was to teach them the language and literature of the Babylonians. • Marched to Babylon, many, according to Jeremiah, naked

  36. Daniel • 4 young men without any physical defect, handsome, showing aptitude for every kind of learning, well informed, quick to understand, and qualified to serve in the king's palace. He was to teach them the language and literature of the Babylonians. • Marched to Babylon, many, according to Jeremiah, naked

  37. Why hostages? Daniel • 4 young men without any physical defect, handsome, showing aptitude for every kind of learning, well informed, quick to understand, and qualified to serve in the king's palace. He was to teach them the language and literature of the Babylonians. • Marched to Babylon, according to Jeremiah, naked

  38. Why hostages? - 12-15 yrs. old Daniel • 4 young men without any physical defect, handsome, showing aptitude for every kind of learning, well informed, quick to understand, and qualified to serve in the king's palace. He was to teach them the language and literature of the Babylonians. • Marched to Babylon, according to Jeremiah, naked

  39. Why hostages? - 12-15 yrs. old - Knew Hebrew Daniel • 4 young men without any physical defect, handsome, showing aptitude for every kind of learning, well informed, quick to understand, and qualified to serve in the king's palace. He was to teach them the language and literature of the Babylonians. • Marched to Babylon, according to Jeremiah, naked

  40. Why hostages? - 12-15 yrs. old - Knew Hebrew - Young enough to be malleable Daniel • 4 young men without any physical defect, handsome, showing aptitude for every kind of learning, well informed, quick to understand, and qualified to serve in the king's palace. He was to teach them the language and literature of the Babylonians. • Marched to Babylon, according to Jeremiah, naked

  41. Why hostages? - 12-15 yrs. old - Knew Hebrew - Young enough to be malleable Daniel • 4 young men without any physical defect, handsome, showing aptitude for every kind of learning, well informed, quick to understand, and qualified to serve in the king's palace. He was to teach them the language and literature of the Babylonians. • Marched to Babylon, according to Jeremiah, naked 5 The king appointed for them a daily ration from the king's choice food and from the wine which he drank, and appointed that they should be educated three years, at the end of which they were to enter the king's personal service.

  42. Why hostages? - 12-15 yrs. old - Knew Hebrew - Young enough to be malleable -Turned into Babylonians Daniel • 4 young men without any physical defect, handsome, showing aptitude for every kind of learning, well informed, quick to understand, and qualified to serve in the king's palace. He was to teach them the language and literature of the Babylonians. • Marched to Babylon, according to Jeremiah, naked

  43. Why hostages? - 12-15 yrs. old - Knew Hebrew - Young enough to be malleable -Turned into Babylonians - Sent back as viceroys Daniel • 4 young men without any physical defect, handsome, showing aptitude for every kind of learning, well informed, quick to understand, and qualified to serve in the king's palace. He was to teach them the language and literature of the Babylonians. • Marched to Babylon, according to Jeremiah, naked

  44. Daniel • 6 Among these were some from Judah: Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah. • 7 The chief official gave them new names: to Daniel, the name Belteshazzar; to Hananiah, Shadrach; to Mishael, Meshach; and to Azariah, Abednego.

  45. First part of the indoctrination: Daniel • 6 Among these were some from Judah: Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah. • 7 The chief official gave them new names: to Daniel, the name Belteshazzar; to Hananiah, Shadrach; to Mishael, Meshach; and to Azariah, Abednego.

  46. First part of the indoctrination: Strip away this primitive Hebrew religious identity Daniel • 6 Among these were some from Judah: Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah. • 7 The chief official gave them new names: to Daniel, the name Belteshazzar; to Hananiah, Shadrach; to Mishael, Meshach; and to Azariah, Abednego.

  47. Daniel • 6 Among these were some from Judah: Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah. • 7 The chief official gave them new names: to Daniel, the name Belteshazzar; to Hananiah, Shadrach; to Mishael, Meshach; and to Azariah, Abednego.

  48. Daniel Daniel = “God is judge” • 6 Among these were some from Judah: Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah. • 7 The chief official gave them new names: to Daniel, the name Belteshazzar; to Hananiah, Shadrach; to Mishael, Meshach; and to Azariah, Abednego.

  49. Daniel Daniel = “God is judge” Belteshazzar = “Baal protects his life” • 6 Among these were some from Judah: Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah. • 7 The chief official gave them new names: to Daniel, the name Belteshazzar; to Hananiah, Shadrach; to Mishael, Meshach; and to Azariah, Abednego.

  50. Daniel • 6 Among these were some from Judah: Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah. • 7 The chief official gave them new names: to Daniel, the name Belteshazzar; to Hananiah, Shadrach; to Mishael, Meshach; and to Azariah, Abednego.