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Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic Bonds. Visit www.worldofteaching.com For 100 ’ s of free powerpoints. How Elements Bond. 2. Bond Formation. The positive sodium ion and the negative chloride ion are strongly attracted to each other.

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ionic covalent and metallic bonds

Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic Bonds

Visit www.worldofteaching.com

For 100’s of free powerpoints

slide2

How Elements Bond

2

Bond Formation

  • The positive sodium ion and the negative chloride ion are strongly attracted to each other.
  • This attraction, which holds the ions close together, is a type of chemical bond called an ionic bond.
  • The compound formed this way is called a salt
slide3

How Elements Bond

2

Bond Formation

  • The compound sodium chloride, or table salt, is formed.
  • A compound is a pure substance containing two or more elements that are chemically bonded.
slide4

How Elements Bond

2

More Gains and Losses

  • Can elements lose or gain more than one electron?
  • The element magnesium, Mg, in Group 2 has two electrons in its outer energy level.
  • Magnesium can lose these two electrons and achieve a completed energy level.
slide5

How Elements Bond

2

More Gains and Losses

  • Some atoms, such as oxygen, need to gain two electrons to achieve stability.
  • The two electrons released by one magnesium atom could be gained by a single atom of oxygen.
  • When this happens, magnesium oxide (MgO) is formed.
slide6

How Elements Bond

2

Convalent Bonds—Sharing

  • Some atoms are unlikely to lose or gain electrons because the number of electrons in their outer levels makes this difficult.
  • The alternative is sharing electrons.
slide7

How Elements Bond

2

The Convalent Bond

  • The chemical bond that forms between nonmetal atoms when they share electrons is called a covalentbond.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1wpDicW_MQQ
slide8

How Elements Bond

2

The Convalent Bond

  • Shared electrons are attracted to the nuclei of both atoms.
  • They move back and forth between the outer energy levels of each atom in the covalent bond.
  • So, each atom has a stable outer energy level some of the time.
slide9

How Elements Bond

2

The Convalent Bond

  • The neutral particle is formed when atoms share electrons is called a molecule
slide10

How Elements Bond

2

The Convalent Bond

  • A molecule is the basic unit of a molecular compound.
naming covalent compounds
Naming Covalent Compounds

Remember that ionic compounds are named by saying the name of the first element and then the second element with the ending changed to “ide”:

NaCl: sodium chloride

MgCl2: magnesium chloride

naming covalent compounds1
Naming Covalent Compounds

Covalent Compounds are also named by stating the name of the first element and then the second changed to “ide”.

However, as the elements share electrons and are not charged, we must use prefixes to tell the number of each element in the compound.

Ex: H2O dihydrogen monoxide

CO carbon monoxide

CO2 carbon dioxide

prefixes to use
Prefixes to Use

Mon (o) 1 Oct (a) 8

Di 2

Tri 3

Tetra 4

Pent(a) 5

Hex (a) 6

Hept (a) 7

hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons are covalently bonded molecules with the elements C and H.

Hydrocarbons are organic molecules because they have chains of carbons

Petroleum compounds are hydrocarbons. Wait, so petroleum and plastics are organic? Yes, by the chemical definition they are.

carbon forms chains
Carbon Forms Chains

Each carbon has 4 valence electrons and so can form 4 bonds

H O

CH3COOH: H-C-C-O-H

H

H

CH4: H-C-H

H

4 molecules of life
4 Molecules of Life

Lipids

Carbohydrates

Protein

Nucleic Acids

lipid
Lipid

FAT!!

carbohydrates
Carbohydrates

Can be simple (sugar) or complex (starch)

Used for energy

protein
Protein

Found everywhere in everything

Made by the DNA/RNA of cell

nucleic acid
Nucleic Acid

Found in DNA and RNA

molelcular vs emperical formulas
Molelcular vs Emperical Formulas

A molecular formula is the formula as we find it in nature

An emperical formula is the lowest whole number formula for a molecule

For the emperical formula CH

C2H2 acetylene

C6H6 benzene