Flagellum first discovered by Englemann(1887) Jansen (1887):- report structure of flagellum of sperm. Hodge (1950):- detailed ultra structure of flagellum of spermatozoa Manton :-gave ultra-structure of cilia DISCOVERY
Cilia and flagella are microscopic, hair or thread like motile structures present extra-cellularly but originate intra-cellularly from the basal body and help in movements, locomotion, feeding, circulation etc. DEFINITION
Central tubules are formed of dynein protein. • Peripheral microtubules formed of tubulin protein • Interdoublet linkers formed of nexin protein. • Quantitatively it is formed of:- • Proteins =74-84% • Lipids=13-23% • Carbohydrates=1-6% • Nucleotides=0.2-0.4% CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
Arise from basal bodies. Similar in ultra structure. Similar chemical composition. Similar in basic function. SIMILARITIES BETWEEN CILIA AND FLAGELLA
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CILIA AND FLAGELLA Cilia • More in number (14,000/ cell). • Small size(5-10 micro meter). • Distributed on whole body • Beat in either metachronous or synchronous coordination. • Sweeping or rowing motion. • Locomotion, feeding, circulation etc are its function. Flagella • Less in number(1-8), but many in Trichonympha. • Large size(150 micro meter). • Located at anterior end of body. • Beat independently. • Undulatory motion. • Only locomotion.
Locomotion Cilia of Paramecium and flagella of collar cells of sponges maintain nutritive-cum-respiratory water current. Cilia of wind pipe expel out any dust or food particle. Cilia of kidney-nephrons move nephric filtrate. Help in conjugation in Paramecium Flagella circulates the food in coelenterons. Cilia of larval forms help in their dispersal. FUNCTIONS OF CILIA AND FLAGELLA