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Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities. David P. Kelly, J.D., M.A. Administration for Children and Families, Children’s Bureau Ying-Ying Yuan, Ph.D. Walter R. McDonald & Associates, Inc. Teri Covington, M.P.H.

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slide1

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

David P. Kelly, J.D., M.A.

Administration for Children and Families, Children’s Bureau

Ying-Ying Yuan, Ph.D.

Walter R. McDonald & Associates, Inc.

Teri Covington, M.P.H.

National Center for the Review and Prevention of Child Deaths

Liz Oppenheim, J.D.

Walter R. McDonald & Associates, Inc.

slide2
Examining Child Fatality Reviews and Cross-System Fatality Reviews to Promote the Safety of Children and Youth at Risk
  • Funded by the Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children’s Bureau
  • 9/26/2011 through 9/25/2012
  • Contract Number: HHSP23320095656WC

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

overview of presentation
Overview of Presentation
  • Study Purpose
      • Identify promising practices for fatality reviews and furthering collaboration among reviews
  • Methods
    • Literature Review
    • Review of Recommendations and Outcomes
    • Site Visits/Telephone Interviews
    • National Meeting
  • What Do Fatality Statistics Tell Us?
  • Fatality Review Structures & Processes
  • Fatality Review Recommendations
  • Summary

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

what do fatality statistics tell us
What Do Fatality Statistics Tell Us?
  • Several data sources for national statistics
    • Vital Statistics
    • National Resource Center for the Review and Prevention of Child Deaths
    • National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS)
  • Children younger than 1 and 1-4 are at highest risk

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

child mortality has decreased dramatically for 1 4 year olds 1
Child Mortality Has Decreased Dramatically for 1- 4 Year Olds1
  • Overall death rate has consistently downward trend
      • 1,419 deaths per 100,000 in 1907
      • 28.6 deaths per 100,000 in 2007
  • Homicide rate increased between 1970-2007 by 26% (points in time)
      • Homicide percentages increased from 2% to 8%
  • Racial/ethnic, socioeconomic and geographic disparities continue
    • Black children 50% higher mortality risk than White counterparts and socioeconomic disparities increasing

1Singh G.K. (2010). Child Mortality in the United States, 1935-2007: Large Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities Have Persisted Over Time. A 75th Anniversary Publication. Health

Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services. Available from:

http://www.hrsa.gov/healthit/images/mchb_child_mortality_pub.pdf

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

leading causes of death for 1 4 year olds 2007 singh 2010
Leading Causes of Death for 1- 4 Year Olds, 2007 (Singh, 2010)
  • Infant mortality rate is at an all time low:
    • 6.39 infants deaths per 1,000 live births
  • Unintentional injuries: 34%
    • 1/3 of these relate to motor vehicle accidents
  • Birth defects: 12%
  • Homicides: 8%
  • Diseases:
    • Cancer: 8%
    • Heart Disease: 4%
    • Less than 2%
      • Pneumonia: 2%
      • Septicemia: 2%
      • Perinatal conditions: <2%
      • Benign Neoplasms: 1%
      • COPD: 1%
  • Other causes: 27%

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

background on a review of selected records ncdr crs
Background on a Review of Selected RecordsNCDR-CRS
  • 34,000 records of deaths of children between 0-5 years of age were reviewed from 36 States
    • A subset of the 49,000 records (2008-2011)
  • Using a very broad definition of CAN related, 13% or 4,500 deaths were CAN-related
  • The data are from 36 States but may not be all deaths in all years from each State.

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

causes of death related to can
Causes of Death Related to CAN
  • More than half of deaths from assault or drowning had a relationship to CAN
      • 78% of deaths from assault (including use of weapons)
      • 53% of deaths from drowning
  • A third to a fifth of deaths from burns, asphxia, and motor vehicles were considered CAN related
      • 33% of deaths from fire and burns
      • 25% of deaths from asphxia
      • 20% of deaths from motor vehicles
  • Smaller percentages for other causes of death
      • 11% from SIDS
      • 2% from perinatal causes (prematurity, LBW etc.)

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

child maltreat ment fatality rates ncands 2002 2010

NCANDS

CHILD MALTREAT- MENT FATALITY RATES, NCANDS, 2002–2010
  • The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System:
    • collects data from all States on the CPS investigation or assessment of alleged maltreatment, including deaths
    • 11,600 fatalities are in the case level database from 2002-2012.
  • The majority of the information is provided at the case level, but many States report on additional deaths.

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

child maltreatment fatalities ncands
Child Maltreatment Fatalities, NCANDS
  • Number of child fatalities due to maltreatment has fluctuated during the past 5 years; since 2007 on a decrease
  • Explanations included system improvements that reduced case backlog and successful prevention programs.

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

child maltreatment fatalities by age ncands 2010 n 44 states unique count
Child Maltreatment Fatalities by Age, NCANDS,2010N=44 States (unique count)

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

race of 0 and 1 4 fatality cohorts
Race of 0 and 1-4 Fatality Cohorts

Race of Age, 0

Race of Age, 1-4

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

maltreatment types of 0 and 1 4 fatality cohorts ncands 2010
Maltreatment Types of 0 and 1-4 Fatality Cohorts, NCANDS, 2010

Maltreatment Types of Age, 0

Maltreatment Types of Age, 1-4

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

perpetrator relationship of 0 and 1 4 fatality cohorts
Perpetrator Relationship of 0 and 1-4 Fatality Cohorts

Perpetrator Relationship Age, 0

Perpetrator Relationship Age,1-4

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

summary
Summary
  • Child fatalities due to abuse and neglect can be understood within a context of all deaths of young children
  • Social and community decisions contribute to the definitions of child abuse and neglect deaths
  • We seek to reduce child fatalities through
    • Better identification of causes and factors leading to death
    • More targeted prevention programs
    • Involvement of all sectors of society

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

fatality review structures processes
Fatality Review Structures & Processes
  • The web of reviews
  • Shared perspectives
  • Fatality review structures and processes
  • Collaboration for improving administration and processes

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

the web of reviews
The Web of Reviews

Background

  • 50 States and the District of Columbia have an active CDR program (at the State and/or local or regional level)
  • 17 States use their CDR team as the citizen review panel for review of fatalities
  • Many child welfare agencies conduct internal child fatality reviews
  • 200 Fetal and Infant Mortality Review (FIMR) programs in 40 States
  • 144 Domestic Violence Fatality Review (DVFR) teams at the State and local level

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

slide18

The Web of Reviews

State/Local/Regional

CDR

CRP

DVR

FIMR

Internal Agency

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

shared perspectives
Shared Perspectives
  • Deaths and serious injuries are sentinel events:

markers for the health and safety of people.

  • Environmental, social, economic, health and behavioral factors impact the death or injury.
  • These factors are so multidimensional that responsibility for a death or injury doesn’t belong to any one agency or organization.
  • Reviews focus on what went wrong and how can we fix it, not who is at fault and who should we blame.
  • The best reviews are multi-disciplinary.

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

fatality review structures processes1
Fatality Review Structures & Processes
  • Membership
    • All are multidisciplinary
    • May not always have all the needed representatives
  • Administrative Homes
    • Many different administrative homes
  • Data collection
    • All team processes include data collection activities
    • For some teams, legislation provides access to needed information
    • Some teams rely on information brought to reviews by team members
    • Some teams conduct interviews with family members

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

benefits of collaboration
Benefits of Collaboration
  • Legislative support
  • More cases
  • More information
  • More knowledge about agencies
  • Existing multidisciplinary team
  • More resources
  • Near fatalities
  • Access to citizen participation
  • Coordinated prevention

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

strategies for collaboration
Strategies for Collaboration

Administrative home

Membership

Case identification

Data collection

Joint meetings

Cross pollination/communication

Identification of cross-cutting issues

Joint training

Develop joint recommendations

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

fatality review recommendations
Fatality Review Recommendations

Findings

  • Types of recommendations made
  • Implementation of recommendations
  • Results
  • Writing effective recommendations

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

prevalence and types of recommendations
Prevalence and Types of Recommendations
  • Most of the recommendations were for:
    • increasing public awareness and education
    • improving policies and legislation
    • strengthening organizational capacity
    • Agency, persons, or organizations often not identified
  • Many global statements indicating that parents should make specific changes in behavior or that communities should provide particular supports or services

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

prevalence and types of recommendations1
Prevalence and Types of Recommendations
  • No mention of collaboration to enhance injury prevention
    • CDR and FIMR teams made recommendations regarding SIDS
    • DVFR teams acknowledged the impact of DV on children
  • All teams acknowledged that collaboration among many agencies and providers was necessary in order to effectively implement recommendations

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

prevalence and types of recommendations2
Prevalence and Types of Recommendations
  • CAN Related Recommendations
    • 78.8 % of the recommendations pertained to some type of educational activity
    • 28.5 % of the recommendations were for parent education
  • Non-CAN Related Recommendations
      • 78.8 % of the recommendations pertained to some type of educational activity
    • 27.5 % of the recommendations were for parent education

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

slide27

Implementation of Recommendations

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

  • Commitment to prevention
    • Each team member must commit to use review information to educate their own agencies and advocate for needed changes
  • Dissemination strategies
    • Disseminate reports far and wide
    • Select the right messenger(s)
    • Work with the media
    • Make in-person presentations
  • Increasing Likelihood of Implementation
    • Include people with authority to effect change
    • Conduct advocacy with legislators and elected officials
    • Implement a separate Community Action Team (CAT)
    • Develop memoranda of understanding regarding next steps
results of fatality review team recommendations
Results of Fatality Review Team Recommendations
  • Improved interagency communication
  • Numerous strategies to promote public awareness and education
  • Prevention strategies focused on high risk populations
    • Strengthened organizational capacity
    • Changes in policy and legislation
    • Improved service delivery

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

writing effective recommendations
Writing Effective Recommendations
  • Assessment of the Problem
    • Describe particular risks or protective factors
    • Include information on best and promising practices
    • Discuss current efforts, resources, and capacity
  • Process
    • Develop or review recommendations with agencies identified

to implement them

    • Prioritize recommendations
  • Recommendation
    • Discuss the primary outcome sought
    • Tie recommendations to specific findings
    • Indentify the agency, persons, or organizations
    • Identify target population
    • Include detailed plan of action

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

strategies for collaboration1
Strategies for Collaboration

Develop an integrated database of fatality review findings and recommendations

Assessing risk factors

Identify shared prevention strategies

Develop joint training

Share information about best and promising practices

Hold joint meetings to create/share findings and recommendations

Develop joint reports

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

summary1
Summary
  • A lot of time, effort, and hard work is being dedicated to conducting fatality reviews.
  • There are a number of creative and effective strategies in place for effective review meetings and collaboration among reviews.
  • Many of the recommendations of fatality review teams have resulted in increased public awareness and education.
  • Improvements in organizational capacity, improved practice and policy, and new legislation.
  • There is a lot to learn from one another about improving review processes, recommendations and outcomes.

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

resource center websites
Resource Center Websites
  • National Center on Substance Abuse and Child Welfare
    • http://www.ncsacw.samsha.gov
  • National Child Welfare Resource Center for Organizational Improvement
  • http://muskie.usm.maine.edu/helpkids/index.htm
  • National Child Welfare Workforce Institute
  • http://www.ncwwi.org/
  • National Domestic Violence Fatality Review Initiative
  • http://www.ndvfri.org/

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

resource center websites continued
Resource Center Websites (continued)
  • National Fetal and Infant Mortality Review Program
    • http://www.nfimr.org
  • National Resource Center for Child Protective Services
  • http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/tta/neccps.htm
  • National Center for the Review and Prevention of Child Fatalities
  • http://childdeathreview.org/
  • National Citizens Review Panel Virtual Community
  • http://www.uky.edu/SocialWork/crp/

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities

contact information
Contact Information

David P. Kelly, J.D., M.A.

David.Kelly@ACF.hhs.gov

Ying-Ying Yuan, Ph.D.

yyyuan@wrma.com

Teri Covington, M.P.H.

tcovingt@mphi.org

Liz Oppenheim, J.D.

loppenheim@wrma.com

Working Together to Prevent Child Fatalities: Collaboration Among Review Teams, Child Welfare Agencies, and Communities