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Constitutional Era Washington & Adams

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Constitutional Era Washington & Adams

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  1. Constitutional EraWashington & Adams Federalist Era SOL: VUS. 6A Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  2. George Washington • “The Precedent President” Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  3. Washington • 1st to take office • 1st to create a cabinet • 1st to amend the Constitution • 1st to enforce laws • 1st to create treaties • 1st to say goodbye Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  4. Washington chooses experts to advise him: Cabinet Position Person Secretary of State Treasury Secretary Attorney General Secretary of War Thomas Jefferson Alexander Hamilton Edmund Randolph Henry Knox Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  5. Judiciary Act 1789 Created the national court system Including the Supreme Court Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  6. Bill of Rights 1- 9: Guaranteed the rights of ___? Individuals 10th : Reserved powers of the ____? States Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  7. Financial Debate Alexander Hamilton’s Plan 1) National government to take on & repay debt of states & Confederation 2) Create a national bank 3) Create Taxes to pay off debt & protect industry Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  8. Tariff Act of 1789 the act remains significant for setting the basics of U.S. trade policy. In supporting its enactment, Alexander Hamilton argued that tariffs would encourage domestic industry. Other nations offered their industries significant subsidies, or money given by a government to support a private business. Hamilton contended that a tariff would protect U.S. industry from the effects of these subsidies.( Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  9. Opposition to Hamilton’s Plan Who gets paid? Original Bond Holders Speculators Is the National Bank legal? No: Not in the Constitution Yes: Implied Power Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  10. Implied Power Constitution: Congress must do whatever is “necessary & proper” to do its job Called the “Elastic Clause” Stretches the Constitution Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  11. Opposition to Hamilton’s Plan Plan hurts farmers - Protective Tariffs - Excise Taxes - an indirect tax - Assumption of state debt hurts South more than North Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  12. Whiskey Rebellion - 1791 Pennsylvania Farmers - Upset over tax on whiskey - Attack federal courthouses and tax collectors - Washington calls out the army to crush the rebellion Federal government flexes its muscles (Insures Domestic Tranquility) Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  13. Thomas Jefferson Alexander Hamilton, John Adams Southerners, small farmers, Laborers, poor. Northerners, Bankers, Merchants, Wealthy. Federal government-Strong State power- weak Federal Government –weak State power- strong Loose Construction Strict Construction British Alliance and supported Jay’s Treaty French Alliance and opposed Jay’s Treaty manufacturing, trade and agriculture. Supported taxes, tariffs and the creation of a bank Agriculture, opposed taxes, tariffs and Creation of bank protection of individual rights was most important rights could be limited in certain situations

  14. Washington’s Foreign Policy America adopts a policy of NEUTRALITY during European wars Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  15. Treaties • To avoid war with Great Britain Washington sent Chief Justice John Jay to London to negotiate. • In the Jay Treaty the British gave up their forts in America, but kept their restrictions on U.S. shipping and required Americans to repay prewar debts to Britain • The Jay Treaty avoided war. Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  16. Treaties • The U.S. also signed a treaty with Spain • The Pinckney Treaty allowed Americans free shipping on the Mississippi and access to New Orleans. • The removal of the forts and secure access to New Orleans allowed westward movement by settlers. • By selling land to these settlers, the federal government gained revenue to help pay off the national debt. Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  17. Goodbye Washington’s Farewell: • Sectionalism Advice: Avoid creation of: Political Parties Foreign Alliances Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  18. What do I have to know • Identify: Tariff of 1789, Hamilton’s Plan, Bank of the United States, Whiskey Rebellion • Explain the purpose of Hamilton’s plan and why people opposed it. • What caused the Whiskey Rebellion? • What political parties developed during this time and what were their characteristics. Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  19. New President: Problems: Quasi-War: Undeclared War Cause: XYZ Affair Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  20. XYZ Affair • The Jay Treaty had offended the French as a betrayal. • To show their irritation, the French began seizing American merchant ships. • Adams sent envoys to negotiate peace. • Three French officials demanded humiliating terms including $250,000 in bribes. Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  21. XYZ Affair • Adams told the papers but called the French officials, XYZ. This upset the public and allowed Adams to expand the army and authorized a small navy. • This war fever was exploited by the Federalists and they passed the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798. • Immigrants who criticized the federal government could be arrested and deported. Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  22. War between the Political Parties Alien & Sedition Act Why Aliens? Favored Democratic- Republicans Sedition Act violated: Freedom of Speech Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  23. Republican Response: Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions: States can declare laws unconstitutional NULLIFICATION Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  24. Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson v. John Adams Democratic-Republican v. Federalist “Revolution of 1800” Peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another


  26. Aaron Burr • Meant to be Jefferson Vice-President • Election is a tie • Election decided by the House of Reps. • Jefferson wins • Result • 12th Amendment • Electoral College has TWO votes • One vote for President • One vote for Vice President Election of 1800

  27. Thomas Jefferson • Born: April 13, 1743- July 4, 1826 • Years in office: 1801- 1809 • Number of President: 3rd • Political Party: Democratic- Republicans • Vice President(S): Aaron Burr/George Clinton • Significant positions held: Secretary of State, Vice President, and Governor of Virginia. • Wrote Declaration of Independence

  28. Government Philosophy Laissez – Faire: Leave it alone Goal: Smaller Government Reduce Debt EliminateWhiskey Tax Reduce Army Size Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  29. Judicial Controversy+ What were they? How did T.J. deal with them? Judges put in place by John Adams before he left the Presidency Unsuccessfully tried to impeach them Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  30. Marbury vs Madison Case: “Midnight Judge” sues for his job John Marshall Chief Justice of Supreme Court What was the big deal? Established the precedent of “judicial review” Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  31. Marbury v. Madison (1803) • Supreme Court Case • Chief Justice John Marshall (Federalist) • Established Judicial Review • Power of the Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional • JUDICIAL REVIEW COMES FROM THIS COURT CASE. IT IS NOT FOUND IN THE CONSTITUTION

  32. Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  33. Louisiana Purchase United States offered $ 10 million to France for New Orleans French Response: France offered the entire Louisiana Territory for $15 million dollars Why? Napoleon needed money for his war in Europe Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  34. Jefferson’s Dilemma • Does the Constitution grant the President the power to purchase Land? • Constitution Does not say anything

  35. Jefferson’s Dilemma • Democratic-Republican • Believed in a weak central government • believed in strict construction of the Constitution (the President only had the powers listed in the Constitution)

  36. Loose vs. Strict Construction • Loose Construction- gov’t can make laws not written in the Constitution. = Increased Power • Strict Construction- gov’t can only do what is written in the Constitution = Decreased Power

  37. Jefferson’s Conflict: VS Farm land Constitutional Power Decision: Accepts a “loose” interpretation of the Constitution to make the land purchase Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  38. The new United States border shifts from the Mississippi River to the: Rocky Mountains Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  39. Louisiana Purchase • Doubled the size of the US • They gain control of the Mississippi River and Port at New Orleans which is important for trade • The price was only 5 million more than they had asked for New Orleans alone Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  40. Lewis & Clark Leaders of the fact finding expedition of the new territory Sacagawea: Indian princess who serves as a guide to the explorers Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  41. International Problems VS Impressment: Forced service of U.S. Sailors into the British Navy Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  42. Jefferson’s Response British attacks angered America: T.J.’s Response: Embargo Act of 1807 Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  43. What do I have to know? • What were T.J.’s belief on the size of government? How did he go about achieving his results? • Who were the “midnight judges”? How did Jefferson attempt to deal with them? • Explain the significance of Marbury vs Madison. What precedent did it set? Who was the Chief Justice who presided over the event. Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  44. Jefferson’s Presidency • What caused Napoleon to sell the Louisiana Territory to the United States? • What issues did T.J. have with the sale? • What was the significance of the deal? • Who were Lewis, Clark, and Sacagawea? • What problems did American sailors have with Europe during this time? • How did T.J. attempt to deal with this issue? Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  45. 4th President of the United States “Little Man with Big Brain” Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  46. Major Issues AmericanExports Years 1808-1812 Created by: Dan Bledsoe 9/2004

  47. Causes Of the War of 1812 • Impressment of American Sailors • Indian raids in the North West • America’s treatment of loyalist after the Revolutionary War • British retaining their forts in North America after the Revolutionary War • Desire for Canada

  48. Impressment of U.S. Sailors • Great Britain would kidnap our sailors • The main cause of the War of 1812