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The Curriculum Models and Definitions. Goal: Explore a variety of program and curriculum definitions as well as ways to plan so you may determine what best fits your style and school/organization. What is a curriculum? What is a program? A set of materials A sequence of courses/projects

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the curriculum models and definitions

The Curriculum Models and Definitions

Goal: Explore a variety of program and curriculum definitions as well as ways to plan so you may determine what best fits your style and school/organization.

What is a curriculum? What is a program?
  • A set of materials
  • A sequence of courses/projects
  • A set of performance objectives
  • A course of study
  • That which is taught in school/org
  • Content
  • Everything that goes on within the school/org including extra-class activities, guidance, and interpersonal relationships
  • Everything that is planned by school/org personnel
  • A series of experiences undergone by learners in school/org
  • That which an individual learner experiences as a result of schooling/org participation

How do the two differ? How are they the same?

According to define: program,

Programs are:

  • a system of projects or services intended to meet a public need; "he proposed an elaborate program of public works"; "working mothers rely on the day care program”
  • course of study: an integrated course of academic studies; "he was admitted to a new program at the university"
  • (computer science) a sequence of instructions that a computer can interpret and execute; "the program required several hundred lines of code”

More definitions of program….

  • A program or programme (in management) has at least two senses: 1) A collection of projects that are directed toward a common goal, e.g., the NASA space program; 2) A broad framework of goals to be achieved, serving as a basis to define and plan specific projects, e.g. the EU's SAPARD Programme.
  • Generally defined as an organized set of activities directed toward a common purpose or goal, undertaken or proposed by an agency in order to carry out its responsibilities. In practice, however, the term program has many uses and is used to describe an agency's mission, programs, functions, activities, services, projects, and

Curriculum is:Albert Oliver…Curriculum is an educational program with four basic elements 1. The program of studies 2. The program of experiences 3. The program of services 4. The hidden curriculumRobert Gagne…Curriculum encompasses 1. Subject matter (content) 2. Statement of ends (end objectives) 3. The sequencing of content 4. Preassessment of entry skills


Hass… the curriculum is all of the experiences that individual learners have in a program of education whose purpose is to achieve broad goals and related specific objectives, which is planned in terms of a framework of theory and research or past and present professional practice.Kerr…All the learning which is planned and guided by the school, whether it is carried on in groups or individually, inside or outside the school.

how does curriculum program apply to
How does curriculum/program apply to:
  • The university (athletics, student services, etc.)
  • Business/Industry Training
  • Other settings

How do you define curriculum/program in your preferred setting?

curriculum definitions
Curriculum Definitions

Curriculum Planning VS Planned Curriculum (what’s the difference???)

  • Core curriculum
  • Written curriculum
  • Planned curriculum
  • Taught curriculum
  • Supported curriculum
  • Tested curriculum
  • Experienced curriculum
  • Hidden curriculum
  • Learned curriculum

Basic Enrichment

Structured Mastery Team Planned

Nonstructured Organic Student Determined

Glatthorn’s Four Curriculums

Thought question...

What types of curriculum do you value most? Why?

What does your organization advocate?


Now for a bit of history vis-à-vis curriculum and schools ….


NEA Committee of Ten

  • 1892
  • Purpose of American high schools debated
  • College preparatory OR a people’s school offering a range of practical courses?
  • Establishment of a standard curriculum and liberalizing the high school by offering alternatives to the Latin and Greek classic curricula.
  • Goal of high school was to prepare all students to do well in life, contributing to their own well-being and society’s good, and to prepare some students for college.



John Franklin Bobbitt

  • 1918
  • Curriculum is an arena for social engineering.
  • Assumption: “Scientific” experts are qualified and justified in designing curricula based on expert knowledge of what qualities are desirable in adult members of society and it can be know what experiences would produce those qualities. Thus, curriculum is defined as the experiences that someone ought to have in order to become the kind of adult they ought to become. Curriculum is an ideal rather than reality of what will actually happen.

What leadership style will you use when working with colleagues on curricular/ program issues?

Max Weber -- Authority types

French and Raven -- Sources of supervisory power (social power)


Max Weber’s Authority Types

Traditional -- authority base legitimized by tradition, devine right of kings, etc. Examples: patriarchal businesses, paternalistic schools.

Charismatic -- leader is inspired by supernatural powers

Legal-Rational -- authority based on laws

(Plus) Professional -- authority guided by professional rules, codes of ethics


French & Raven’s Sources of Supervisory Power

Reward -- power based on ability to reward (ie. pay increases, favors, better equipment

Coercive -- power based on ability to punish

Expert -- power based on expert abilities as perceived by others (others respect the leader’s abilities)

Referent -- power based on respect/admiration

Legitimate -- power based on office held


What type of leadership works in your org?

What type will you employ?

Max Weber’s Authority Types





French & Raven’s Sources of Supervisory Power




Referent (respect)



Defining curriculum is one thing,

Developing curriculum is another….

Research paradigms, value systems, and beliefs about the world in general will influence the model of curriculum planning you advocate.

Which “camp” do you most readily fall into?






  • Applies scientific methods and principles to the task of curriculum development.
  • Assumptions:
  • Reality is definable
  • The goals of education are knowable
  • A linear, objective process will yield a useful documents and high quality plans
  • --->

Deductive Process

  • Top down
  • Extensive administrator involvement
  • Starts by examining broader questions/purposes of education and societal needs before addressing the classroom level
  • Key authors: Tyler, Hass, Hunkins, WIDS
  • --->

Inductive Process

  • Bottom up
  • Curriculum development
  • by classroom teachers
  • Starts by developing individual units which will be assembled into a cohesive program
  • Key author: Taba

Tyler Model

(Ornstein & Hunkins, 1993,j p. 267-8; Wiles & Bondi, 1989, p. 10)

1. Define purpose of school

Identify instructional objectives

2. Relate educational experiences to school purposes

3. Organize educational experiences

4. Evaluate purposes for

program effectiveness.


Hass & Parkay Model

(Hass & Parkay, 1993, p. 294)

1. Identify context (gather data about intended learners and the human, social, and environmental variables within which learners interact)

2. Determine objectives

Set goals

3. Select , Prepare, & Implement ---->

Strategies and Alternatives

4. Evaluate


Hunkins Model

  • (Hass & Parkay, 1993, p. 329-32; Ornstein & Hunkins, 1993, p. 207-73)
  • 1. Curr. conceptualization and legitimization
    • built on society’s values, beliefs, knowledge bases, institutions, and artifacts
    • complete front end analysis:
      • ask philosophical questions
      • debate purpose of schooling
      • debate curriculum designs
      • develop master curriculum plan

2. Curriculum diagnosis

    • Identify reasons for human performance deficiencies
    • Translate needs into causes
    • Generate goals, objectives, expected learner outcomes
  • 3. Content selection
    • Identify criteria for content selection (ie. economy, significance, validity, interest, learnability, feasibility)
    • Sequence content --->

4. Experiencs and material selection (by teacher)

    • Determine methods, strategies, activities, incentives, materials, nature of educational environment
  • 5. Implementation
    • Pilot curriculum (assess curriculum not students)
    • Modify where necessary
    • Full implementation
  • --->

6. Evaluation

    • Determine if curriculum is presented/taught as written and recommended (supervision function)
    • Furnish data so decisions can be made to continue, modify or discontinue program
  • 7. Maintenance
    • Monitor and maintain
    • curriculum

Taba Course Development Model

(Oliva, 1992, p. 160-2)

1. Produce pilot units (see next slide)

2. Test experimental units

3. Revise and consolidate units

4. Develop a framework

5. Install and disseminate new units


Taba Pilot Unit Development Model

1. Diagnose needs - what are current gaps in student learning

2. Formulate objectives

3. Select content

4. Organize content

5. Select learning experiences

6. Organize learning activites

7. Determine what to evaluate and ways and means of evaluation

8. Check for balance and sequence



1. Perform



4. Develop



2. Write



3. Analyze



8. Develop



7. Sequence


6. Designate



5. Develop



9. Specify



10. Develop


Record Plan

14. Create

A Class


13. Layout


Lesson Plans

12. Develop



11. Design



Wisconsin Instructional Design System



  • Nontechnical-nonrational approach
  • Assumptions:
  • Curriculum evolves as learners, teachers, and knowledge interact
  • All goals of education cannot be predefined
  • Content can only be tentatively selected
  • Learning will be based on the creation of knowledge, especially self-knowledge
  • Curriculum development is highly political requiring administratorsand teachers to work together
  • Key author: Glatthorn (naturalistic model)

Glatthorn Naturalistic Model

  • (Ornstein & Hunkins, 1993, p. 274; Glatthorn, 1987, p. 89+)
  • 1. Assess the alternatives - evaluate current approaches
  • 2. Stake out the territory
    • define course parameters
    • define learning audience
    • define learning activities
  • 3. Develop a constituency
  • --->

4. Build the knowledge base

    • identify content
    • gather data on faculty skill and support
    • gather data on student audience
  • 5. Block the unit
    • select unit topics
    • write general objectives
  • 6. Develop unit planning guide
  • --->

7. Plan quality learning experiences

    • Select experiences not content to be learned
  • 8. Develop course examination
    • Tell how learning will be documented (not test development)
  • 9. Develop learning scenarios
  • 10. Package the product

Where are you in terms of curriculum definitions and models?

Next week: How does your organization develop/revise curriculum/programs, what’s the process, who does what.