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Rhetoric Methods for Speeches. http://www.putlearningfirst.com/language/20rhet/20rhet.html. Rhetoric is the study of effective speaking and writing. "That form of speaking which has the intention of making an impact upon, persuading, or influencing a public audience."

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rhetoric methods for speeches

Rhetoric Methods for Speeches

http://www.putlearningfirst.com/language/20rhet/20rhet.html

http://www.putlearningfirst.com/language/20rhet/20rhet.html

rhetoric is the study of effective speaking and writing
Rhetoric is the study of effective speaking and writing.
  • "That form of speaking which has the intention of making an impact upon, persuading, or influencing a public audience."
  • Rhetorical devices are frequently used consciously in advertising and in public speeches to create an effect.
  • Rhetoric may be used to present a case in the most effective way, showing verbal dexterity. The danger of rhetoric, with its intention to persuade, is that the speaker may "stretch" the truth and effectively present a worthless or immoral cause.

http://www.putlearningfirst.com/language/20rhet/20rhet.html

rhetorical devices
Rhetorical Devices
  • Onomatopoeia (sounds suggest meaning)
  • Metaphor (a thing is spoken of as being that which it only resembles)
  • Syllogism (a logical argument in three parts - two premises and a conclusion which follows necessarily from them)
  • Irony (deliberate use of words to mean the opposite of their literal meaning)
  • Allegory (a symbolic narrative)
  • Isocolon (the use of clauses or phrases of equal length)
  • Antithesis (words balanced in contrast)
  • Anaphora (repetition of a word at the beginning of consecutive sentences)
  • Hyperbole (exaggeration)

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examples
Examples
  • Isocolon: "With mirth in funeral, and with dirge in marriage" Claudius, Act 1 Scene 2 of Hamlet
  • Antithesis: John Dryden's description in The Hind and the Panther: “Too black for heaven, and yet too white for hell.”
  • Syllogism: All men are mortal. All Greeks are men. Therefore, all Greeks are mortal.
  • Rhetorical irony: Kitty and Lydia Bennett walked to Meryton “three or four times a week to pay their duty to their aunt and to a milliners’ shop just over the way” in Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice
socrates two principles of rhetoric
Socrates’ Two Principles of Rhetoric
  • The orator should offer a preliminary definition of the nature of his topic
  • He should divide his subject into its component parts.

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cicero s principles of rhetoric
Cicero’s Principles of Rhetoric

The orator ...

  • must first hit upon what to say;
  • then manage and marshal his discoveries, not merely in an orderly fashion but with a discriminating eye for the exact weight of each argument;
  • next go on to array them in the adornments of style;
  • after that guard them in his memory;
  • and in the end deliver them with effect and charm."

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skills of rhetoric invention
Skills of Rhetoric: Invention
  • ETHOS or proof deriving from the character of the speaker himself.the tone of the speech should establish the speaker's virtue and moral worth.
  • PATHOS The emotions induced in the audience. the audience begins to feel that the speaker must be right and is won over to his side.
  • LOGICAL PROOF Demonstration of the case by means of argument such as syllogisms, examples and maxims.

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skills of rhetoric arrangement
Skills of Rhetoric: Arrangement
  • INTRODUCTION to put the audience in the right frame of mind e.g. "Friends, Romans and countrymen...“
  • NARRATION a short statement of the facts of the case
  • PROPOSITION the narrator states succinctly the facts of the case.
  • DIVISION the main headings under which the subject will be treated.
  • PROOF the orator marshals all the arguments on his side of the case, giving points in ascending order of importance leading to a climax. This is the core of the argument.
  • REFUTATION the orator attempts to answer or discredit the arguments advanced against him.
  • CONCLUSION
    • summing up
    • amplification - an emphatic statement of the speaker's position, often invoking "commonplaces" to move the audience to indignation or enthusiasm.
    • an appeal to the audience's tender feelings

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skills of rhetoric memory
Skills of Rhetoric: Memory
  • The speech should appear unpremeditated and should whenever possible be delivered from memory.

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skills of rhetoric delivery
Skills of Rhetoric: Delivery
  • Use the appropriate gestures and facial expressions - the wagging finger of exhortation, the arms and hands spread wide in appeal...
  • The tone of voice may be conversational, intimate or energetic according to subject matter, and given with varied amplification

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skills of rhetoric style
Skills of Rhetoric: Style
  • PURITY and correctness of language
  • CLARITY and intelligibility
  • DECORUM and appropriateness
  • ORNAMENT, figures of speech, metaphors, prose rhythm
  • QUESTIONS
    • Interrogatio- a question which requires no answer because it expresses a truth which cannot be denied.
    • Rogatio- a question to which we immediately supply our own answer
    • Quaesitio- a string of questions uttered in rapid succession for the sake of emotional emphasis
    • Percontatio- an enquiry in a tone of bewilderment or amazement and allowing no satisfactory or easy reply.

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examples of rhetoric in practice saint crispin s day speech from henry v iv iii 18 67
Examples of Rhetoric in Practice Saint Crispin’s Day speech from Henry V (IV.iii 18-67)

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examples of rhetoric in practice
Examples of Rhetoric in Practice
  • Saint Crispin’s Day speech from Henry V (IV.iii 18-67)
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3jXFnQUU7yg
  • Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “Been to the Mountaintop” speech
    • http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkivebeentothemountaintop.htm

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