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Incremental Summer PM 2.5 Benefits. from Current Tier 2 Vehicle & Fuel Standards will Continue to Occur a Decade from Now …. PM 2.5 Benefit: TIER 2 over TIER 1 Ambient PM 2.5 Concentration. Change in PM 2.5 Levels 1 Tier 2 over Tier 1. Max Benefit= 2.7 µg/m 3.

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incremental summer pm 2 5 benefits
Incremental Summer PM2.5 Benefits

from Current Tier 2 Vehicle & Fuel Standards will Continue to Occur a Decade from Now …

PM2.5Benefit: TIER 2 over TIER 1 Ambient PM2.5Concentration

Change in PM2.5 Levels1

Tier 2 over Tier 1

Max Benefit= 2.7 µg/m3

July 2022 Projection

Change in Monthly Mean 24-hr Concentrations

BUT…Adoption of More Stringent Light-Duty Vehicle Exhaust Emissions and Gasoline Sulfur Requirements

Will Yield Comparatively Negligible Air Quality Improvement

PM2.5 Benefit: TIER 3 over TIER 2 Ambient PM2.5 Concentration

Change in PM2.5 Levels1

“Tier 3”2 over Tier 2

Max Benefit=

0.1 µg/m3

July 2022 Projection

Change in Monthly Mean 24-hr Concentrations

1 ENVIRON, Effects of Light-duty Vehicle Emissions Standards and Gasoline Sulfur Level on Ambient Fine Particulate Matter, 5/2013

2 “Tier 3” was modeled as the CA LEV III tailpipe emissions standards adopted nationwide, combined with in-use emissions adjustments to represent the impact of a national gasoline sulfur average of 10 ppm

3 0.1 g/m3 within range of PM2.5 monitor measurement uncertainty (40 CFR 58, App. A)