Chapters 15 16 17
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Chapters 15,16, & 17. American Government. The Federal Bureaucracy. The federal bureaucracy, part of the executive branch, carries out most of the day-to-day work of the Federal Government The Executive branch is composed of three groups of agencies: The Executive Office of the President

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Chapters 15 16 17

Chapters 15,16, & 17

American Government

The federal bureaucracy
The Federal Bureaucracy

  • The federal bureaucracy, part of the executive branch, carries out most of the day-to-day work of the Federal Government

  • The Executive branch is composed of three groups of agencies:

    • The Executive Office of the President

    • The 15 Cabinet Departments

    • Many Independent Agencies


White House Office

Executive Office of the President


of State

Cabinet Departments

Independent Agencies


Single administrator:

Near-Cabinet status


Regulates business activities:

Investigates or advises

Securities & Exchange Commission



Board and manager;

Business-like activities

U.S. Postal Service

The executive office of the president
The Executive Office of the President

The Executive Office of the President includes both advisors and agencies that work closely with the President

The Executive Office of the President is an umbrella agency, some of the units are shown here.

White House Office



Economic Advisors

Office of National Drug Control Policy

Office of Management and Budget

National Security


Independent agencies
Independent Agencies

  • A number of independent agencies work outside the framework of the executive branch

  • There are three types of independent agencies that carry out specific duties


The Constitution gives Congress broad power to set federal taxes, which today are collected mostly as income taxes

Progressive Tax – the more you make, the more you pay

Tax Return – forms filed showing how much money you owe the government

Payroll Taxes – money withheld from paychecks to send to the government: Social Security & Medicare

Regressive Taxes – rate is the same for everyone – Social Insurance taxes

Excise Tax – luxury tax

Estate Tax – paid on the assets of someone who died

Gift Tax – tax on gifts over $11,000 in one year

Custom Duty – tax on goods brought into the U.S. from another country

Nontax revenues and borrowing
Nontax Revenues and Borrowing

The United States has a huge public debt, created by borrowing when government spending exceeded its income.

In a year when the government spends more than it takes in, it must borrow money to make up the deficit.



Spending the budget
Spending & the Budget

Creating the Federal Budget

  • The annual budget-making process is a joint effort of the President and both houses of Congress

  • The federal budget, the President’s yearly plan for conducting government, is a very important document

President, with help of Office of Management and Budget, creates the budget

President sends the budget to Congress

Congress gives budget to Budget and Appropriations Committees in each house

Congress approves final budget

Congress sends appropriations bills to the President to authorize spending for the coming year

Foreign affairs and national security
Foreign Affairs and National Security


  • Both the State Department and the Defense Department assist the President in carrying out foreign policy

  • In the U.S., the President makes and carries out foreign policy with the help of key departments


Secretary of Defense

Joint Chiefs of Staff

Dept. Dept. Dept.

of the of the of the

Navy Army Air Force


Secretary of State


Other foreign defense agencies
Other Foreign & Defense Agencies

Several government agencies are closely involved with foreign and defense policy

Foreign defense alliances
Foreign & Defense Alliances

U.S. Foreign Policy

Participation in the United Nations

Regional security alliances

Foreign Aid


Military assistance