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INTER-MINISTERIAL DIALOGUE ON CLIMATE CHANGE. Cape Hotel Monrovia, Liberia 24-26 June 2009. Bhujang Dharmaji, UNDP. PROJECT CONTEXT. Project goals & outcomes. Goals Development of national policy options to address climate change in key sectors

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Cape Hotel

Monrovia, Liberia

24-26 June 2009

Bhujang Dharmaji, UNDP


Project goals & outcomes

  • Goals

  • Development of national policy options to address climate change in key sectors

  • Increased capacity to co-ordinate negotiating positions at national level and participate in the UNFCCC process

  • Outcomes

  • 1. National awareness raised with capacity development programme

  • 2. Investment and financial (I&F) flows assessed for up to 3 key sectors

  • 3. Web-based knowledge platform launched

Sequencing of national activities

National workshop on Bali Action Plan, national issues

National workshop to present results, policy options

Assessment of I&F flows to address CC mitigation/adaptation options for up to 3 key economic sectors (6-8 months)

Pre-workshop preparation (2 months)

  • Update on Bali Action Plan negotiations

  • I&F flows assessments presented

  • Post-2012 preparation

  • Key line ministries engaged

  • Key sectors identified

  • National issues papers prepared

  • National workshop on:

  • Bali Action Plan

  • Adaptation, mitigation, technology transfer, financing + LULUCF

  • Key sectors

Training on I&FF flows starts this phase

UNDP methodology on assessing I&F flows

Backstopping from regional centres of excellence

I&FF work

  • I&FF assessment

  • What are the adaptation/ mitigation options for up to 3 sectors selected in the next 25 years?

  • Who is investing in the sector / major players and sources?

  • How I&FF are estimated to happen in next 25 years?

  • What shifts/increase in I&FF will be needed in the sector?

  • What will be the overall needs for additional I&FF?

  • 3 Main guides

  • Work Plan Guidance

  • Methodological guidance

  • Reporting guidance

UNDP support

  • Guidance documents

  • I&FF training & workplan development (3 days in-country with regional centre of excellence)

  • Regional center of excellence technical backstopping (20 days)

  • Knowledge platform – with “communities” to

    exchange information

Project Focal Point

Sectoral team leader

Sectoral team leader

Sectoral team leader

Sector 1 Team, e.g. energy mitigation

Sector 2 Team, e.g. agriculture adaptation

Sector 3 Team, e.g. water adaptation

Mitigation expert(s)

Adaptation expert(s)

Adaptation expert(s)

Energy expert(s)

Agriculture expert(s)

Water expert(s)

Finance expert(s)

Finance expert(s)

Finance expert(s)

Economic/statistics expert(s)

Economic/statistics expert(s)

Economic/statistics expert(s)

NGO/academic expert(s)

NGO/academic expert(s)

NGO/academic expert(s)

Private sector expert(s)

Private sector expert(s)

Private sector expert(s)

I&FF team

Preparation stage (1- 2 months)

  • Establish the I&FF team

  • Assess methodological capacities and needs

  • Assess information availability and needs

  • Agree the institutional arrangements

  • Develop the overall programme of work and budget

Implementation stage (5-6 months)

Reporting (~1 month)

George Manful, UNEP/GEF


Climate change convention initially focused on mitigation 1992
Climate Change Convention initially focused on mitigation (1992)

Convention objective

  • Allow ecosystems to

  • adapt naturally

  • to climate change;

  • Ensure food production

  • is not threatened; and

  • Enable economic development to

  • proceed sustainably

Achieve stabilization

of greenhouse gas

concentrations in the

atmosphere at a

low enough level to

prevent “dangerous


Interference” with

the climate system

within timeframe sufficient to

No Binding Targets: UNFCCC signed by 191 Parties

The convention clusters countries in three groups
The Convention clusters countries in three groups (1992)

“Common, but differentiated responsibilities”

Annex II

Non-Annex I

  • Industrialised countries

  • Provide financial

  • resources to enable

  • developing countries to

  • meet the costs of

  • implementing measures

  • Promote technology

  • transfer to EITs and non-Annex I Parties

  • Developing countries

  • No quantitative obligations

  • Least Developed Countries given special consideration

Annex I

  • Industrialised countries & Economies in Transition (EITs)

  • Adopt policies

  • and measures with

  • aim of reducing GHG

  • emissions to 1990

  • levels

  • EITs have “flexibility”

  • in commitments

Kyoto Protocol (1992)- adopted 1997, entered into force 2005, 184 parties

  • International agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

  • Binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions

  • Principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities”

The Kyoto Mechanisms

  • Emissions trading – known as “the carbon market”

  • Clean development mechanism (CDM)

  • Joint implementation (JI)

The road ahead

  • By the end of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol in 2012, a new international framework needs to have been negotiated and ratified

Structure of the convention
Structure of the Convention (1992)

Conference of the Parties (COP) to the


Bureau of the COP

Permanent subsidiary bodies

Subsidiary Body for Implementation(SBI)

Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA)

Expert Group on Technology Transfer (EGTT)

Least Developed Countries Expert Group (LEG)

Consultative Group of Experts on National Communications (CGE)

Expert bodies, special bodies

Structure of the kyoto protocol
Structure of the Kyoto Protocol (1992)

Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP)

Bureau of COP/MOP

Permanent subsidiary bodies

Subsidiary Body for Implementation(SBI)

Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA)

Expert bodies, special bodies



Adaptation Fund Board

CDM Executive Boards

Joint Implementation

Advisory Committee

Bali road map important outcomes
Bali Road Map – important outcomes (1992)

  • Set deadline of COP-15 (Copenhagen), 2009

  • Recognition that actions to address climate change intimately linked to economic growth and sustainable development goals and needs.

  • Breakthrough in international policy -- shared vision of common efforts by both developed and developing countries (long-term global goal for emission reductions under Bali Action Plan)

  • Bali Action Plan: Centres on four building blocks – adaptation mitigation, technology and financing

  • Timetable to agree new emission reduction targets for Annex I Parties under Kyoto Protocol by 2009

Bali Road Map - Breakthrough (1992)

  • Bali Action Plan (launched in 2007)

    • Process to be conducted under a new Subsidiary Body (AWG-LCA)

  • Focused on four “building blocks”:

    • Mitigation

    • Adaptation

    • Technology development and transfer

    • Financial resources and investment

    • Another critical issue is “reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation” (REDD)

Bali road map two tracks
Bali Road Map – two tracks (1992)

Kyoto Protocol “track” (launched in 2005)

  • Agree on further quantifieddeveloped countries emission reduction targets by 2009

  • Discussions on ranges – IPCC - 450 ppm CO2-eq, GHG emissions would need to be reduced for about 25 to 40 % by 2020 compared to 1990.

  • Means to achieve targets: mechanisms (CDM, AIJ, ET), national policies, accounting issues, role of LULUCF, include other gases, etc.

Process to be conducted under a new Subsidiary Body (AWG-KP)

Results from climate talks in bonn june 2009 awg lca 6
Results from climate talks in Bonn, June 2009 ( (1992)AWG-LCA 6,)

Main objective: to discuss text prepared by Chair, based on proposals submitted by Parties (FCCC/AWG/LCA/2009/8)

Amended text will be prepared for consideration at next session in August

  • “Measurable, Reportable, Verifiable” should only apply to actions enabled by financial, technological and capacity building support by developed countries

  • Need to further work on text relating to registries and to the support and accreditation mechanisms

  • REDD-plus should play an important role regarding Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions for developing countries. REDD-plus activities should receive appropriate support

    • Some countries stressed the need to reflect local, ancestral and indigenous knowledge, especially for adaptation.

  • Public financing essential for adaptation technologies

  • Convergence in the establishment of at least an adaptation and a mitigation fund, which could be complemented by market mechanisms



Madeleine Diouf-Sarr, Senegal

What we know (1992)


Adaptation: Initiatives and measures to reduce the vulnerability of natural and human systems against actual or expected climate change effects (IPCC)

Vulnerability: the degree to which a system is unable to cope with the

adverse effects of climate change, climate variability and extreme events

Some important aspects related to adaptation

  • Adaptation is not a new process

  • As climate change become more evident, some ecosystems (e.g.: ecosystems) will not have sufficient time to adapt

  • United Nations recognize the need for countries to take immediate actions (National Positions)

Key challenges in adaptation (1992)

  • The identification of measures and its implementation is a complicated process that presents challenges

  • Will require adjustments across every aspect of society, environment & economy (i.e.: substantial financing)

  • Not stand-alone issue: linked to economic development, poverty reduction, disaster management

  • Requires capacity for short- and long-term planning

  • Adequate institutional arrangements (systematic planning, co-operation, and regulatory frameworks)

Evolution of international negotiations (1992)

  • Initial focus of negotiations from 1995 was mitigation

  • Adaptation identified as issue at COP-7 in 2001 (Marrakesh Accords)

  • LDC Fund, Special Climate Change Fund, Adaptation Fund

  • Created NAPA process and LDC Expert Group (LEG)

  • Identified 14 adaptation activities needing support

  • COP 10 to 12 (2004 to 2006)

  • Buenos Aires Programme of Action on Adaptation and Response Measures

  • Nairobi Work Programme

  • Implementation measures on methods, activities, technology transfer and financing

Key issues under the Bali Action Plan (1992)

Four discussion topics identified:

  • National planning for adaptation

  • Streamlining and scaling up of financial & technological support

  • Enhanced knowledge sharing

  • Institutional frameworks for adaptation

Key challenges

  • Current level of funding

  • Experience of developing countries in accessing funds

  • Need for additional financial flows in future

Negotiations on adaptation issues in Bonn, June 2009 (1992)

A comprehensive, action-oriented Adaptation Framework shall be established to support:

  • Implementation of adaptation actions included in national adaptation plans

  • Means of implementation, including finance, technology and capacity-building

  • (c) Risk reduction, management and sharing, including insurance and addressing loss and damages

Key challenges

  • Experience of developing countries in accessing funds

  • Need for substantial additional financial flows


Bhujang Dharmaji, UNDP

Knowledge platform (1992)

  • Web-based knowledge platform

  • This website is for use in the project

  • Created because work under project (I&FF assessment, international negotiations) needs input from many people

  • Every country has a public page and a private group

  • All workshop and I&FF materials posted, plus updates on the negotiations

  • Your participation is welcomed!

Knowledge platform (1992)

Public space - Join the climate community here

Knowledge platform (1992)

Member space – individual groups for each country

Space for country teams to meet, share documents, update each other

Knowledge platform (1992)

The library – search for documents and submit your documents

You can search after title, author, year, keywords…



Detlfof Von Oertzen, Namibia

What we know (1992)

Mitigation:In the context of climate change, a human intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases.

  • Human activity is contributing to climate change and all sectors will be impacted

  • ALL countries must reduce emissions to avoid worst damages, developed and developing countries

  • Significant technological progress made, but annual investment of $200-210 billion needed by 2030

  • Forests and land use will be part of the solution

Key issues under the Bali Action Plan (1992)

  • Bali Action Plan calls to identify mitigation actions that are:

    • Measurable

    • Reportable MRV

    • Verifiable

  • MRV implies support for technology, finance, and capacity building for developing countries

  • Developed countries must make commitments and take actions

  • International agreement will be major challenge

Key challenges under the Bali Action Plan (1992)

Mitigation is highly contentious issue in negotiations, in danger of remaining blocked

  • At issue:

  • One priority for developing countries in Bali was that all developed countries, including the US, take on QELROs.

  • Comparability: how tobring Convention and Kyoto Protocol tracks together

  • “Common but differentiated responsibilities”

    • Outcome differs depending on: which GHGs, which sources, time frame, scale (national vs per capita emissions)

  • How to match mitigation actions by developing countries with support from developed countries

There is a number of ways to calculate targets, global proposals

  • Kyoto-style fixed targets: Take the form of agreed percentage reduction against annual emissions in a base year, 1990

  • Per capita: Takes as starting point the equal right of each person to use the atmosphere as a global commons

  • Brazilian proposal: Bases on historical responsibility for change in temperature of individual countries.

  • Emissions intensity: Requires reductions of emissions relative to economic output

  • Global Triptych: Focuses on 3 sectors

Proposals relevant for developing countries proposals

  • Evolution of Clean Development Mechanism

  • Sustainable development policies & measures (SD-PAMs)

  • Sectoral approaches

National context

  • Not stand-alone measures, policy mix required

    that fits nations circumstances and goals


Maguette Kaire, Senegal

Forests play a central role in climate change
Forests play a central role in climate change proposals

Forests are vulnerable

Forests can

increase resilience of people and ecosystems, &

fix and maintain carbon.

Forests emit GHG

What we know proposals

The land-use sector, including forestry and agriculture, is an important source of GHG emissions

  • 20%-30% of total emissions

    • Can play relevant role in climate change mitigation

    • Emerging as important issue in post-2012 regime discussions

      Contentious because of high uncertainties and its non-permanent nature as a mitigation option

Evolution of international negotiations proposals

Key sector for developed countries because of its mitigationpotential.

Developing countries focused mostly on GHG inventories (issues of data, resources, capacity).

Two main areas for contributing to mitigation in this sector:

  • Under the KP, through afforestation & reforestation project activities included in the CDM in Marrakesh (2001)

  • Under the Convention, through Reducing Emissions from Deforestation & Forest Degradation (REDD), under discussion since Montreal (2005)

Key issues under the Bali Action Plan proposals

  • Key mitigation options identified for developing countries:

    • Reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD)

    • Conservation, sustainable forest management & forest restoration (REDD+)

    • Afforestation & reforestation (& others?) (CDM)

  • Developing countries want:

  • Financial incentives (new & additional) and support to build capacity related to REDD

  • Some want a wider set of eligible activities under the CDM and means to turn some credits into permanent credits




Bhujang Dharmaji, UNDP

What we know: Financing proposals

Mitigation measures will require additional I&F flows of $200-210 billion in 2030

Adaptation measures will require additional I&F flows in 2030 of several tens of billion $

  • Amounts are large in absolute terms, but small relative to global GDP and investment

  • Private sector dominates investments: corporations (60%), households (24%); government (14%)

  • Existing climate change funds would need to be enhanced at a greater scale

Key issues under the Bali Action Plan: Financing proposals

Improved access to adequate, predictable & sustainable financial resources

New and additional funding

Positive incentives to implement mitigation & adaptation actions

Innovative funding means to meet adaptation costs

Mobilisation of public and private sector funding

Financial and technical support for capacity building

Financing options proposals

Increasing the Scale of Existing Mechanisms or extending to others (JI, ET)

CDM and Other Possible Crediting Mechanisms: $25

Adaptation Fund: $0.5-2

Contributions from Developed Countries

Financial Commitments Mechanism under the Convention: $130-260

Contributions from Developed and Developing Countries

World Climate Change Fund: $10

Multilateral Adaptation Fund: $18

More Stringent Commitments by Developed Countries

Auction of Assigned Amount Units: $5(in billion $)

For more information, refer to paper “Negotiations on additional investment and financial flows to address climate change in developing countries”, table 6

Evolution of international negotiations: Financing proposals

  • Developed countries required to support transfer of technologies to developing countries

  • Environmentally sound-technologies

  • Suited to local conditions

  • Dissemination of technology information & networking

  • Strengthened research and capacity building

  • Identified as key modality for mitigation and adaptation: gaining momentum in negotiations

  • Kyoto Protocol: also emphasises need for financial resources, CDM

Key issues under the Bali Action Plan: Technology proposals

  • Removal of barriers to promoting technology transfer including:

  • Financing

  • Intellectual property rights

  • Tariffs and non-tariffs

  • Capacity

  • Ways to accelerate deployment, diffusion and transfer of technologies

  • Co-operation on research and development

  • Effectiveness of tools & mechanisms for technology co-operation