Editing and Proofreading This presentation is an overview of how to edit and proofread your assignments.
Editing and Proofreading Take time to revise your assignment—edit and proofread Just as a good photo can be enhanced on the computer to make it look great... ...a great assignment is written in multiple drafts.
Editing Proofreading Proofreading looks at the details Editing looks at the essay as a whole Word choice Structure Spelling Sources of information Grammar Punctuation Task requirements Style
Before you start revising: Get some distance Leave it for a day after you have finished the first draft Find a quiet place Do one section at time Find a quiet place Find a quiet place Get someone else to read your work Change the look Change the font, line spacing or size Change the look
Content • Re-read • Your assignment sheet • Your criteria (or CRA) sheet • Other information from your lecturer / tutor • Check that you have specifically answered the question and completed all tasks • Write a checklist of all the requirements of your assignment and tick off each item as you complete them
Structure The structure should be outlined Summarize the main point of your assignment State your thesis The scope (or limits) should be explained
Structure Each paragraph should develop only one idea which is stated in the topic sentence All points made should be supported by evidence Linking words or phrases should be used to create flow between paragraphs
Structure The points in the body of your assignment should be summarised Repeat the main point of the assignment Restate your thesis
Academic Style Write in the third person he she they Support statements with evidence. me you we Use a formal, objective tone Focus on facts, not emotion Consider different points of view
Academic Style For Example … I think that everyone is realising how its really awful the way animals are just slaughtered so that people can have their steak dinners. In a recent study, 67% of young people expressed their aversion to the killing of animals for consumption. However, only 32% of respondents aged over 25 felt the same way (Mitchell, 2007, p.36). Academic style NOT Academic style
Sources Question: Have I indicated the source of every piece of information I have used in my assignment? • Information in your assignment requires an • in-text citation • reference list • Sources should be • current • authoritative • Check with your lecturer as to which referencing style to use.
Word Choice Question: Is my assignment clear in meaning? Be concise Use specialised language where appropriate Avoid words you do not know Remove slang and discriminatory language
Word Choice Hedging Statements Hedging statements are conclusions that are not absolute and therefore are not as easy to disprove Hedging statements tend to use words such as ‘it maybe…’, it indicates that…, ‘it could be concluded that…’ Absolute Statement • “Today everyone uses credit cards for all theirshopping.” Hedging Statement • “Many people in society use their credit cards for much of their shopping.”
Grammar Questions: Are all my sentences complete? Do they all make sense? Every sentence in your assignment should be complete It should contain each of these grammatical elements The subject – who or what is doing something The object – who or what is having something done to it The cat walked to the fridge The verb– what is being done
Grammar Read your assignment out loud one sentence at a time Your ears will usually hear when a sentence is not complete
Grammar Questions: Do my sentences contain only one idea? Are they too long and complicated? A sentence should only have one point. Try not to have a sentence that runs for no more than two or three lines. If it is too long, divide it into more than one sentence.
Grammar Questions: Do the different elements of my sentences agree? In each of your sentences: The subject and verb should agree – that is, if your subject is singular (one) then your verb should be in the singular form one catsingular verb eg: The cat sits on the couch the cats sit on the couch more than one cat plural verb Nouns and pronouns should match more than one accountant eg: Good accountants look out for the interests of his / their clients plural pronoun
Grammar You can find more about the rules on these and other grammar points at: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/1/5/
Punctuation Questions: Have I punctuated my sentences correctly? Have I used commas in the right places? Have I used apostrophes for the right reason? • Commas are commonly used for • separating adjectives • e.g. The small, tense and quivering mouse looked up at me. • adding an extra phrase into a sentence • e.g. The tall man, who wore a red tie, looked over his shoulder. • Apostrophes indicate either • letter of a word have been left out (contraction) e.g. you’re, who’ll • the ownership of something (possession) e.g. Lin’s wallet, the boys’ football
Punctuation Check your understanding of these and other punctuation points at: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/1/6/
Spelling Question: Is my spelling correct? Spelling is the least important part of your assignment, but the most visible. Use a spell checker, but do not just rely on it. Learn to spell the words you use often. Check your work by reading it backwards—you tend to focus less on the meaning of words and more on their spelling.
Formatting Cover sheet Check your unit outline and blackboard site for formatting requirements. Referencing style Font size Graph size & captions Line spacing & margins Headings & page numbers
Photo References (in order of appearance) PAGES 2-5 Nic McPhee, 'Editing a paper - 19 ', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/nics_events/2349630643/, ed, 2008, pen on page of edited text, lid upright on page. Nic McPhee, 'Editing a paper - 27', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/nics_events/2349631689/, ed, 2008, Fountain pen on edited page R. Peschetz, '(Utopia) Before and After ', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/rpeschetz/2611295812/, ed, 2008, building photo before and after photoshopped WimMulder, 'Writing to reach you', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/wimmulder/15653748/, ed, 2005, holding a pen. Exothermic, 'Flaming Orange Red Autumn Tree', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/exothermic/2041438046, ed, 2007, completely orange red autumn tree Grant MacDonald, 'fall leaf ', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/grantmac/246785658/, ed, 2006, autumn leaf lying on the ground Julian Robinson, 'the Loneliness of the Long distance Cyclist', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ozjulian/2460263055/, ed, 2008, long road with cyclist in the distance Peter Garnhum., 'Edge of the Monsoon Palace ', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/petergarnhum/237427219/, ed, 2006, looking over palace walls to valley below Telstar Logistics, 'Severed 707 Nose Section ', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/telstar/67555169/, ed, 2005, Severed nose cone of a 707 jet. Rosalie A. Bakar, '5 Tips to help you get the most from proofreading ', In: http://www.ezyblogger.com/2009/05/5-tips-to-help-you-get-the-most-from-proofreading/, ed, 2009, black bird reading words on manhole cover T Martins, 'AGR-02RW012-005', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/tjmartins/3996324066/, ed, 2009, Aerial view of harvester in a field, field half done
Photo References (in order of appearance) PAGES 6-18 Justin See, 'To-do list book', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/koalazymonkey/3596829214/, ed, 2009, open notebook with pencil skipnclick, 'Pointed question', 2008, hand writing 'what's the point?‘ Patrick Medved, 'Structure ', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ppix/2305078608/, ed, 2008, steel frame Sarah Macmillan, 'The fence ', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/essjay/3952434562/, ed, 2009, sunset through a chain link fence AftabUzzaman, 'Pink ball saga ', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/aftab/4139274434/, ed, 2009, pink golf ball on beach pebbles Eric Lin, 'Support structure for main terrace, park guell', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/phonescoop/98402233/, ed, 2006, Columns supporting a mosaic roof Celeste Goulding, 'Wonderful early victorian hand motif bracelet ', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/perfectjewels/2130677387, ed, 2007, bracelet with ornate links, patterned beads and a hand on the end Elliott Brown, 'Statue of George I outside The Barber Institue of Fine Arts - the horse's tail ', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ell-r-brown/4207405714/, ed, 2009, tail end of statue of horse of King George I. Sarietha, 'Repeating Patterns', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/sarietha/1794451071/, ed, 2007, A set of lights repeated down a hallway. Light Rail Now, In: http://www.lightrailnow.org/images02/transit-graph-safety-per-pm-avg-2002-04_lrn.gif, ed, A graph of transit safety. Grace Fell, 'Thinking ...' In: 392964271_b4d8fe95e9_o.jpg, ed, 2007, woman, chin on hand, looking up and thinking Leo Reynolds, 'pile of books ', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/lwr/4077733692/, ed, 2009, pile of books Antony Chammond, 'Hedging my bets at Penshurst Place', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/8525214@N06/2918055523/, ed, 2008, tall hedge with a doorway cut out of it justmakeit, '265/27 Sock Tragedies ', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/rachelpasch/2231096694/, ed, 2008, Three unfinished knitted socks C Koay, 'Venus de Milo ', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ceekay/358327527/, ed, 15 January, 2007, statue of Venus de Milo James Thompson, 'Cut Cake ', 2006, cream sponge cake with piece cut out of it
Photo References (in order of appearance) PAGES 19-25 Sarah Charlesworth, 'Train runs up the west side of the Exe estuary ', In: http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1285794, ed, 2009, Train running through fields with cows in foreground Enrique Burgos, 'customer-loyalty_retention ', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/enriqueburgosgarcia/3364250371/, ed, 2009, two stylized people shaking hands Leo Reynolds, 'comma', 2006, comma yellow on green with link pattern Stephen Lock, 'Spelling', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/stephendl/2212818035/, ed, 2008, colourful plastic letters of the alphabet jumbled Rick Kirby, 'Formation', In: http://www.flickr.com/photos/21804434@N02/3476321942/, ed, 2003, sculpture of six women with arms outstretched.