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Structural Geology. TECTONICS The Mechanics of the Earth Revealed by the Geology - Frédéric Flerit. Our aim. we study the DEFORMATION of the Earth . before After. and we study the E V O L U T I O N of the deformation. how long ? rates.

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structural geology

Structural Geology

TECTONICS

The Mechanics of the Earth

Revealed by the Geology

-

Frédéric Flerit

1 the earth
1) The Earth

Gravity + Rotation => Ellipsoid

2 the mantle
2) The Mantle

Convection => Plate Motion

3 the lithosphere
3) The Lithosphere

Eurasia

India

Intra-plate deformation => Orogenic belts

4 the crust
4) The Crust

Deformation produced by similar events…

the deformation processes several objects and scales

The Deformation Processes several objects and scales

Rocks 1 m

Crust 10 km

Lithosphere 100 km

Mantle 1000 km

Earth 40.000 km

after thousand earthquakes
After thousand earthquakes…

Holocene scarp, west side of Mankhan Valley

and several time scales

And Several TIME scales

Earthquakes 1 s

Two successive Earthquakes (Inter-seismic) 100-1kyr

Landscape evolution 10 kyr

Geology 1-1k Ma

1 we observe the structures geology geomorphology
1 ) We Observe the structures(geology geomorphology)

Field : rocks

Field : morphology

Airplanes

Satellites

1 we observe active deformation
1) We observe active deformation

Geodesy

GPS

Radar

Sismology

2 we map
2) We Map

Topography

Structures

Geology

Mathematics : Geometry

2 and we measure
2) And we Measure

Holocene offsets of river beds

3 to explain the observations

- 10k yrs

(3) To Explainthe observations

Present

Physics :

Block motion

slide28

2

1

Modele pour la deformation du Tibet

(3)

At several scales

Carte tectonique Himalaya-Tibet

method

Method

  • Observe < Earth Sciences
  • Measure < Mathematics
  • Explain < Physics
the math recquired to attend the course i ii
The Math. recquired to attend the Course (I II) :

- Geometry 3D (dot and scalar product)

  • Matrixes, Tensors, vectors
  • Projections,
  • Motion and combinaison of motion (translation rotation)
  • Integration, derivation
  • Trigonometry
slide33

Published papers on the Ailao Shan - Red River Fault zone and SE Asia:

Harrison, T. M., Chen Wenji, P. H. Leloup, F. J. Ryerson, and P. Tapponnier, An early Miocene transition in deformation regime within the Red River fault zone, Yunnan, and its significance for Indo-Asian tectonics, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 7159-7182, 1992.

Harrison T.M., P.H. Leloup, F.J. Ryerson, P. Tapponnier, R. Lacassin, and Chen Wenji, Diachronous initiation of Transtension along the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear zone, Yunnan and Vietnam, in The Tectonics of Asia, edited by An Yin, and T.M. Harrison, World and regional geology series, 208-226, Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Lacassin, R., P. H. Leloup, and P. Tapponnier, Bounds on strain in large Tertiary shear zones of SE Asia from boudinage restoration, J. Struct. Geol., 15, 677-692, 1993.

Lacassin, R., U. Schärer, P. H. Leloup, N. Arnaud, P. Tapponnier, Liu Xiaohan, and Zhang Lian-Sheng, Tertiary deformation and metamorphism SE of Tibet: The folded Tiger-leap décollement of NW Yunnan, China, Tectonics, 15, 605-622, 1996.

Lacassin R., H. Maluski, P.H. Leloup, P. Tapponnier, C. Hinthong, K. Siribhakdi, S. Chuaviroj, and A. Charoenravat, Tertiary diachronic extrusion and deformation of western Indochina: structural and 40Ar/39Ar evidence from NW Thailand, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 10013-10037, 1997.

Lacassin, R., A. Replumaz, and P. H. Leloup, Hairpin river loop and slip sense inversion on SE-Asian strike-slip faults, Geology, 26, 703-706, 1998.

Leloup, P. H., Cinématique des déformations "himalayennes" dans la zone de cisaillement crustale de l'Ailao Shan - Fleuve Rouge, Doctorat thesis , 148 pp., Université Paris 6, Paris, February 1991.

Leloup, P. H., T. M. Harrison, F. J. Ryerson, Chen Wenji, L. Qi, P. Tapponnier, and R. Lacassin, Structural, petrological and thermal evolution of a Tertiary ductile strike-slip shear zone, Diancang Shan, Yunnan, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 6715-6743, 1993.

Leloup, P. H., and J. R. Kienast, High Temperature deformation in a major Tertiary ductile continental strike-slip fault: evidence of shear heating at lithospheric scale?, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 118, 213-234, 1993.

Leloup, P. H., R. Lacassin, P. Tapponnier, Zhong Dalai, Liu Xiaohan, Zhang Lianshang, Ji Shaocheng, and Phan Trong Trinh, The Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone (Yunnan, China), Tertiary transform boundary of Indochina, Tectonophysics, 251, 3-84, 1995.

Leloup, P.H., Y. Ricard, J. Battaglia, and R. Lacassin, Shear heating in continental strike-slip shear zones: numerical modeling and case studies, Geophys. J. Int., 136, 19-40, 1999.

Leloup P.H., Arnaud N., Lacassin R., Kienast J.R., Harrison T.M., Phan Trong Trinh, Replumaz A., Tapponnier P, New constraints on the structure, thermochronology and timing of the Ailao Shan - Red River shear zone, SE Asia, J. Geophys. Res, 106, 6657-6671, 2001.

Replumaz, A., Lacassin, R., Tapponnier, P., Leloup, P.H., Large river offests and Plio-Quaternary dextral slip-rate on the Red-River fault (Yunnan, China), J. Geophys. Res., 106, 819-836, 2001.

Roger F., P.H. Leloup, M. Jolivet, R. Lacassin, Phan Trong Trinh, M. Brunel, D. Seward, Unravelling a long and complex thermal history by multi-system geochronology: example of the SongChay metamorphic dome, North Vietnam., Tectonophysics, 321, 449-466, 2000.

Schärer, U., P. Tapponnier, R. Lacassin, P. H. Leloup, Zhong Dalai, and Ji Shaocheng, Intraplate tectonics in Asia: a precise age for large-scale Miocene movement along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone, China, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 97, 65-77, 1990.

Schärer, U., Zhang Lian-Sheng, and P. Tapponnier, Duration of strike-slip movements in large shear zones: The REd River belt, China, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 126, 379-397, 1994.

Tapponnier, P., R. Lacassin, P. H. Leloup, U. Schärer, Zhong Dalai, Liu Xiaohan, Ji Shaocheng, Zhang Lianshang, and Zhong Jiayou, The Ailao Shan/red River metamorphic belt: Tertiary left-lateral shear between Indochina and South China, Nature, 343, 431-437, 1990.

Zhang L., and U. Schärer, Inherited Pb components in magmatic titanite and their consequence for the interpretation of U-Pb ages, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 138, 57-65, 1996.

tectonics

TECTONICS

Observe the Surfaces of the Earth

Bathymetry-Topography

Geomorphology (river bed, moraines…)

Seismic (reflexion, refraction)

Measure its Evolution

Geodesy (GPS, Leveling, triangulation…)

Seismology (tomography, focal mechanism, magnitude and locations)

Geology