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Precision Irrigation and Fertigation. What is Irrigation? Irrigation is the application of water to a crop for assisting the production of a crop. What is precision? A degree of mutual agreement among a series of individual measurements, values, or results.

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Precision Irrigation and Fertigation


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Presentation Transcript
slide2
What is Irrigation?
  • Irrigation is the application of water to a crop for assisting the production of a crop.

What is precision?

  • A degree of mutual agreement among a series of individual measurements, values, or results.
slide3
What are we looking for in precision irrigation?
  • Irrigation Efficiency and/or Uniform Coverage
  • Plus site-specific application

Efficiency is what you get out, for what you put in.

Efficiency = output / input

OR

Water stored in root zone / water delivered to the field

slide4

Decreased Efficiency

WindDrift

Evaporation

Evaporation from vegetation

Evaporation from soil surface

Infiltration

Runoff

Deep percolation

slide5

Flood

Drip

Spray

Furrow

spray irrigation
Spray Irrigation
  • Evaporation (Major Loss)
    • Wind speed
    • Humidity
    • Air temperature
    • Canopy density
    • Sprinkler evaluation
    • Sprinkler pressure
  • Deep Percolation (Minor Loss)
    • System uniformity
    • Total application depth
  • Runoff (Minor Loss)
    • Application rate
    • Slope
    • Vegetation Density
furrow irrigation
Furrow Irrigation
  • Evaporation (Minor Loss)
    • Wind speed
    • Humidity
    • Air temperature
  • Deep percolation (Major Loss)
    • Unit flow rate
    • Field length
    • Soil texture
    • Field slope
    • Total application depth
  • Runoff (Major Loss)
    • Unit flow rate
    • Field slope
    • Soil texture
drip irrigation
Drip Irrigation
  • Evaporation (Minor Loss)
    • Minor soil surface evaporation for drip
  • Deep percolation (Minor Loss)
    • System uniformity
    • Total application depth
  • Runoff (Minor Loss)
how to improve irrigation system
How to Improve Irrigation System
  • Night Irrigation – Low temp, low wind, high humidity
  • Lower operating pressure – bigger droplet size
  • Low drift nozzles – bigger droplet size
  • New Technology
low energy precision application lepa
Low Energy Precision Application (LEPA)
  • Irrigates with the plant rows
  • Drops water in the furrow

Approximately 90% application efficiency

efficiency
Efficiency
  • Standard Multi Sprinkler 75-80%
  • Moving Multi Sprinkler
    • LEPA 90+%
  • High Pressure Gun 60-75%
  • Standard Flood 40-70%
  • Drip Irrigation 90%

A high efficient irrigation system will help increase the precision of

the application of water and nutrients to the plant.

fertigation chemigation
Fertigation / Chemigation

The use of an irrigation system to apply the necessary application of nutrients or chemicals to the crop.

management
Management

Need to know and understand the equipment.

advantages
Advantages
  • Uniformity of application
  • Prescription applications
  • Economics - expense
  • Timelines
  • Incorporation and Activation
  • Reduced Compaction
  • Operator hazard
disadvantages
Disadvantages
  • Calibration of equipment
  • Additional equipment
  • Environmental Hazard
  • Increased application times
  • Unnecessary Water Applications
why use fertigation
Why use Fertigation?
  • Your irrigation system does the work.
  • Overfeeding and Underfeeding is decreased.
  • Dry applications need water to dissolve the granules.
  • With precise application, the overall amount of chemicals applied is reduced vs. the dry application.
precision irrigation
Precision Irrigation

The use of fertigation or chemigation with site-specific technology.

  • Technology
    • GPS – locate soil type, water holes, weeds, obstructions, and boundaries
    • GIS (Geographical Information System) works with data captured from spatial reference points.
    • VRT (Variable-rate controllers) System “Brain” sets the rate of application dependent on soil type, slopes, ponds…etc.
    • Weather Station / Mesonet (ET rate)
    • Green Seeker / Weed Seeker
      • NIR (Near Infrared Band)
      • Red (Red Band)
      • Thermo sensor
sources
Sources
  • www.florence.ars.usda.gov/
  • www.betterpivots.com/how.html
  • http://weather.nmsu.edu/
  • www.nrw.gld.gov.au/
  • www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/abeng/
  • www.fertigationsystems.com
  • http://msucares.com/pubs/pulications/p1551.htm
  • Dr. Kizer. Oklahoma State University. April 18, 2008