Leadershipfor Attainment of Goal SIRD ODISHA – UN WOMEN
Leadership “Leadership is a process of legitimate influence rather than the quality of a person.” (Grimes 1978)“Leadership involves motivating group members to expend more energy in attaining the goals of the group” (Katz & Kahn 1978)
Qualities of a Leader You measure a leader not in terms of the skills he/she possesses, but in terms of the skills she develops in others; not in terms of those she helps, but in terms of those she helps to help themselves; not in terms of decisions she makes but how she frees others to make decisions; not in terms of the power she has over others but in terms of the power she releases in others; not in terms of what she has accomplished, but what they have accomplished – that is the measure of a leader.
Who is a Leader? A leader is a person who has the attitude and confidence of leadership and the desire to take responsibility to motivate, organize, and unify others in the process of actualizing the group's potential. A leader should have knowledge of the task, social skills, and the ability to see the big picture...to look at the group in the context of its environment and the job to be accomplished.
Characteristics of successful leaders 1. Adaptable to situations2. Alert towards the social environment3. Cooperative 4. Decisive 5. Dependable6. Assertive 7. Persistent and self-confident8. Knowledgeable
Personality characteristics of leaders (i) Needs / motives: The leaders like or value qualities such as— power— achievement and ambition(ii) Temperament : The leaders are found to be— emotionally even and stable— optimistic(iii) Cognitive orientation : They— are intelligent and analytically strong— have good intuitive power(iv) Interpersonal Relations : The leaders— are good at developing relationships with people— can relate to people easily— have cooperative relations with people
Leadership Behaviour (I) Task performance behavior — This refers to the things that a leader does to ensure that a group achieves its goal.(ii) Group maintenance behavior — This leadership is often known as concern for people. The leader here ensures the social stability of the group and maximizes the satisfaction of the members.(iii) Participation in decision making — The successful leader employers want to participate in decision making. It depends on the leader on where and how to let others take part in decision making.
Bases of Power Legitimate power - If your ability to influence the behavior of someone else is based on your position in an organization, you possess legitimate power. Coercive power - If your ability to influence the behavior of someone else is based on fear, you have coercive power. Reward power - Closely related to coercive power is reward power. If your ability to grant rewards influences the behavior of another person, you have a reward power base. Referent power - If your ability to influence the behavior of another person is based on your personal traits, you possess referent power. Expert power - If your ability to influence the behavior of another person is based on your expertise in some area, you have an expert power base. Information power - Closely related to expert power is information power. If your ability to influence the behavior of someone else is based on information you possess or have access to, you have an information power base. Connection power - If your ability to influence the behavior of another person is based on your “connections” with important people, you possess connection power.
Why are women marginalized in leadership? Women are marginalized in decision making and leadership by a variety of processes They are often marginalized by an institutional setting that reflects men's needs and situation and ignores women's different needs and experience.
What can be done? Immediate steps needs to be taken to place more women in decision-making and leadership positions. An essential step toward the more equal participation of women in decision making and leadership is awareness-raising for men. In order to increase the number of women in decision-making in public life, a variety of strategies aimed at greater equality for women in decision-making should be adopted.
Six Steps for Decision Making Define decision-making process Define issue/problem Generate alternative solutions Assess alternative solutions Select the best alternative Implement and monitor decision