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Evaluation of Training . B.V.L.Narayana SPTM/RSC BRC. DEFINITION . Training

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evaluation of training

Evaluation of Training



  • Training
    • Provision aimed at creating intentional learning processes To bring about semi permanent change in individuals –Knowledge, attitudes. Skills and habits (KASH)—behaviors With an intention To enhance performance on the job
  • Evaluation of training
    • Systematic collection of descriptive and judgmental information necessary to make effective training decisions
    • Is affected by
      • Need analysis, participation, other antecedent conditions, design and delivery and transfer of training
evaluation of training3
Evaluation of training
  • Antecedent conditions
    • Are what trainees bring to training
  • Design and delivery
    • Structuring and methods of delivering content
  • Transfer of training
    • Transfer of training is defined as the degree to which trainees apply the knowledge, skills , and attitudes gained in training to their job ( Ford and weissbein 1997; Tannebaum and Yulk 1992; Wexley and latham 1991)
  • Factors influencing participation
    • Organizational
      • Alignment with organizational strategy
      • Change, innovative work practices
      • High performance work systems
      • In large organizations
        • Economies of scale, work place recognition, union involvement, specialized skills
        • Showing greater support for training and development
    • At job level
      • Highly skilled jobs
    • At individual level
      • More motivated to learn, continuous learning
      • More committed
antecedent conditions
Antecedent conditions
  • Are
    • What trainees bring to training
      • High cognitive ability
      • High motivation to learn-desire to learn
      • High training and performance goal orientation
    • Work environment factors-facilitating trainee participation and learning
      • Enablers of use of training at work place
        • Rewards, recognition, support, resources
        • Organizational direction and support
    • How training is prepared
      • Content has to be relevant, interesting, appropriate and have opportunities for practice, enable mental conceptualization of material
motivation to learn
Motivation to learn
  • Motivation to learn is defined as the specific desire of a learner to learn the content of training programme (Noe 1986; Noe and Scmitt 1986) –supported by
    • High training goal orientation
    • Lack anxiety
    • High internal locus of control
    • High achievement motivation
    • Conscientitious
    • High self efficacy
    • Committed
    • Plan their career
  • Organizational support, peer and supervisor support
training design
Training design
  • Is based on how people learn and how organizations learn
    • Learning cycles (Sanchez 2002)
    • Learning principles (Kolb 1984)
      • Recall from memory
      • Apply principles to task
      • Symbolic mental rehearsal
      • Reinforcement
      • Feed back and response
      • Self monitoring of learning
      • Cater to differences in aptitudes
design of training
Design of training
  • Learner control
    • Enabling trainee to participate in design of programme
      • Has a very small role, good for procedural and skill based learning
  • Trainer skills
    • Use of line managers, peers unskilled trainers reduces efficacy of training
    • Use expert and skilled trainers
    • Question of outsourcing
      • Issues of trust, contextual familiarity, commitment
  • Types of training
    • Individual, team, error and e-learning
  • Contexts
    • Separate
    • As part of high performance work systems
    • Influenced by
      • Trainees learning style
      • Methodology of delivery
      • Way training is delivered-Kolb’s experiential learning cycle(1984) – concrete experience, reflective observations, abstract generalization, active experimentation
      • Specific population and content
    • Maximum transfer of training occurs when conditions for transfer are included in training, practice scenarios, trainee is allowed to set goals, gets rewards and trainee supervisors are trained
  • Groups of methods used in training
    • Information presentation
    • Modeling- demonstration
    • Information presentation and learner response—case method
    • Systematic response generation—contextualizing the training
    • Simulation
    • On the job training
high performance work systems
High performance work systems
  • A growing body of research suggests that the use of a set of HR practices, including
    • comprehensive employee recruitment
    • selection procedures, compensation
    • and performance management systems,
    • information sharing, and
    • extensive employee involvement and training,
  • can improve the acquisition, development and retention of a talented and motivated workforce. These HR practices are usually referred to as high involvement, high commitment, or high performance work systems.
training design14
Training design
  • Involves five steps
    • Specify instructional objectives
    • Decide sequence of activities
      • Content based on learning principles
    • Select training method
    • Ensure good learning environment
      • To maintain motivation to learn
    • Design measures of training effectiveness
transfer of training
Transfer of training
  • Aims of transfer
    • Apply to improve performance
      • Immediate—learn and apply
      • Long term –maintain and apply, transfer to others
    • Is impacted by factors
      • What occurs before training
      • What occurs during training
      • What occurs after training
    • Factors classified as
      • Individual
      • organizational
transfer of training16
Transfer of training
  • Individual
    • Learner characteristics
      • Cognitive ability
      • Motivation to learn
      • Anxiety
      • Openness to experience
      • Perceived utility
      • Career planning
      • Organizational commitment
      • High motivation to transfer
transfer of training17
Transfer of training
  • Training environment
    • Learning goals
    • Content relevance
    • Practice and feed back
    • Behavioral modeling
    • Error based examples
  • Work environment
    • Transfer climate
    • Supervisor support
    • Peer support
    • Opportunity to perform
evaluation of training18
Evaluation of training
  • Most commonly based on four stages model
    • Kirkpatrick (1959,1976,1994,2006)
  • Four stages of evaluation
    • Reactions
    • Learning
    • Behavioral
    • Results
  • Research shows that most used is
    • Reactions (72%), followed by learning( 32%) behavioral ( 19%) and results (7%)
evaluation of training20
Evaluation of training
  • Research
    • Very few to establish causal sequence of Kirkpatrick's model
    • New models are being developed
      • Holton's model
    • Proof that training helps
      • Immediate
      • Long term
theory of planned behavior24
Theory of planned behavior
  • The theory of planned behaviour states that the most important determinant of a persons behaviour
    • is behaviour intent ( Ajzen 1991; Ajzen and Fishbien 1980; Fishbien and Ajzen 1975) and
    • that this intent is dependent upon His attitude, the pervailing norms and perceived behaviour controls.
    • Peoples attitudes towards their behaviour refers to the degree to which they are made favourable or unfavourable evaluations of behaviour in question.
    • subjective norms are perceived social pressures from significant others to perform or not to perform.
    • Perceived behavioral controls are the perceived ease or difficulty of performing a beaviour. more favourable the norms and attitudes, more favourable is te perceived beavioural controls and stronger the individual intention to perform the behaviour under consideration