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s alt solubility rules. titration. add acid via burette to alkali`+ indicator until neutral (or until temperature stops rising) measure volume of acid added; throw away solution as it contains the indicator; add same volume of acid to same amount of alkali without indicator

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S alt solubility rules
salt solubility rules


Titration
titration

  • add acid via burette to alkali`+ indicator until neutral (or until temperature stops rising)

  • measure volume of acid added; throw away

  • solution as it contains the indicator;

  • add same volume of acid to same amount of

  • alkali without indicator

  • obtain dry salt from solution

    (see later slide)

    titration animation


Excess base
excess base

  • warm acid

  • add excess base to acid until no more dissolves (warm acid if necessary)

  • filter off excess base

  • obtain salt from (see next slide)

    excess base animation


Obtaining dry salt from solution
obtaining dry salt from solution

  • Concentrate solution until it becomes saturated which is done by driving off most of the water by heating it. Solution is saturated when crystals form on a glass rod dipped in the solution.

  • Stop heating and allow solution to cool and salt crystals to form.

  • Filter the crystals to remove water

  • Wash crystals with a little water

  • Dry crystals with filter paper or place on warm gauze.


Precipitation
precipitation

  • make 2 solutions each one containing 1 ion of the salt to be made (use soluble salts!!!)

  • add the two solutions

  • filter off the precipitatewhich is the insoluble salt

  • wash the residue in the filter paper with distilled water

  • dry with other filter paper or place on warm gauze


P recipitation salts experiment
precipitation salts experiment

Name the precipitates and write word and balanced equations


Exercise
exercise

  • For each of the salts below:

    • Decide on the method you will use

    • Select appropriate reagents

  • Salts:

    • potassium chloride

    • copper nitrate

    • lead sulphate

    • magnesium chloride

    • ammonium nitrate

    • calcium sulphate


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