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Installation of a Green Roof The Use of a Literature Review, Engineering Analysis, and Life Cycle Analysis to Determine Sustainable Benefits. CIVE 6900 Sustainability Science and Engineering Fall 2008 Professor Apul Presented by: Katie Puffenberger,Erik Lange,Prasad Bollineni,Zongsu Wei.

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Installation of a Green RoofThe Use of a Literature Review, Engineering Analysis, and Life Cycle Analysis to Determine Sustainable Benefits

CIVE 6900 Sustainability Science and Engineering

Fall 2008 Professor Apul

Presented by: Katie Puffenberger,Erik Lange,Prasad Bollineni,Zongsu Wei

slide4
Portion of a 10.4-acre extensive green roof on an assembly plant at Ford Motor Company in Dearborn, Mich.
stakeholders of this project
Stakeholders of this Project
  • University of Toledo wishes to update the North Engineering Building
  • SSOE is fast tracking design plans
  • UT Students will be benefited by aesthetically pleasing study areas
  • Society benefits from silver standards of LEED certification
objectives
Objectives
  • Engineering analysis for installing a green roof
    • Far reaching background information
    • Analyze possible LEED credits
    • Life cycle analysis
green roof
Green Roof
  • Developed in Germany in the 1960s
  • Water-proof structures covering buildings
  • Energy savings
  • Used to combat the urban island effect.
  • Decrease air pollution
  • Provides habitat
extensive green roof
Extensive Green Roof
  • Advantages
    • Lightweight
    • Used in large areas
    • Low maintenance
    • No need for irrigation
  • Disadvantages
    • Less energy efficient and storm water retention
    • Limited choice of plants
    • Unattractive during the winter
intensive green roof
Intensive Green Roof
  • Advantages
    • Good insulation
    • Very attractive
    • Energy efficiency and storm water retention
    • Longer membrane life
  • Disadvantages
    • Greater weight loading
    • Need for irrigation and drainage system – energy
    • Higher maintenance costs
layers of green roof
Layers of Green Roof
  • Plant layer
  • Growing Medium
  • Drainage Layer
  • Root Barrier
  • Waterproof Layer
  • Structural Support (Roof)
types of green roof plants
Types of Green Roof Plants
  • Mosses
  • Grasses
  • Herbs
  • Succulents
growing medium
Growing Medium
  • Contains both organic & inorganic materials.
  • Provides fertilizers for plant growth.
  • Provides stability to plants.
  • Retains water for plants.
  • Restricts weed growth.
drainage layer
Drainage Layer
  • Locks water
  • Drains excess water
  • Provided for roofs with slope angle <10°
  • Supports growing medium
root barrier waterproof layer
Root Barrier & Waterproof Layer
  • Placed below drainage layer
  • Prevents root migration
  • Protects waterproof layer
  • Avoids water from damaging the roof
analysis methods
Analysis Methods
  • Much of the modeling analysis was done using site-adjusted published figures
  • Specific numbers were found for the North Engineering Building Roof
  • Literature review was very important for data gathering
  • Site drawings and roof visits were important for visualization
insulation effect
Insulation Effect
  • Lowering Thermal Conductance in Roofs is the Key to Energy Savings
  • Studies have found between 37% to 48% Energy Savings due to Insulation of Green Roofs
air quality effect
Air Quality Effect
  • In U.S., there are 3,700 premature deaths per year that can be directed contributed to air pollution
  • Reducing air pollution does not always equate to lower monetary costs
  • Ozone, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, and PM10 (particulate matter) are examples of pollutants that have been shown to be removed by plants that have been installed on green roofs
  • Each hectare of green roof installed has been found to remove 85 kilograms of air pollution in one year
monetary effect
Monetary Effect
  • Green roofs cost approximately $150 per square meter to install
  • Energy costs are substantially less for buildings with green roofs
  • Cost analyses must be done on each site due to a number of differing factors including existing insulation and building configuration
lca goals and scope
LCA Goals and Scope
  • Goal of LCA was to quantify and clarify the environmental and monetary costs and saving of installing a green roof versus leaving the existing roof
  • The functional unit was the entire roof
  • The life was determined to be thirty years
lca scope boundaries
LCA Scope: Boundaries
  • Included in the LCA was energy used, monetary cost, and any pollution removed or added during the manufacture, construction, or operation phases
  • No results in other impacted sectors or results from the maintenance or demolition phases were considered.
lca life cycle inventory
LCA: Life Cycle Inventory
  • Comparison Categories (from the functional unit):
    • Global Warming Potential (GWP-carbon dioxide equivalence)
    • Monetary Costs (U.S. dollars)
    • Air Pollution Removal (kilograms of total pollutants)
    • Energy Saving (terajoules)
  • Analysis for each category was done using a mix of process-based LCA and EIOLCA
  • Most of the inventory was done using site-adjusted published figures
  • Multiple outputs were evaluated from each phase within the boundaries
toledo lucas county public library
Toledo Lucas County Public Library
  • Serving the Public since 1993.
  • Intensive Green Roof.
  • Green Roof Covers 0.5 acres of the roof.
  • Consists of Turf, Shrubs, & Trees.
  • Grid System Implemented for Roof.
  • Uses Potable

Water for Watering Plants.

baseline scenario
Baseline Scenario
  • Water
  • There is approximately 5,150 square yards of roof was examined
  • Using average annual rainfall data, this area of roof catches approximately 4,580 cubic yards of water each year.
  • This water is currently being wasted
layout and drainage patterns
Layout and Drainage Patterns
  • The 50-year, 24-hour storm was the basis of design
  • Existing Drains will remain intact only as emergencies
layout and drainage patterns1
Layout and Drainage Patterns
  • The new roof shall not need to be re-sloped
  • The roof layers and plants shall be designed to hold the design storm
  • The saw-toothed structures shall work as they do currently
roof type determination
Roof Type Determination
  • Extensive Green Roof
    • No supplemental irrigation
    • Maintenance free
    • Less design load
  • Why Intensive Roof was not chosen
    • Difficult and expensive to reconstruct the roof
    • Planting media requires more maintenance
introduction to leed building rating system

Introduction to LEED Building Rating System

LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) was developed as a national standard for building environmental minded and sustainable buildings. LEED was developed and continues to be administered by the U.S. Green Building Council. The first pilot version of LEED was released in 1999.

leed accreditation
LEED Accreditation

*continued on next page

slide37

LEED Accreditation

*continued from prior page

life cycle analysis results impact assessment
Life Cycle Analysis ResultsImpact Assessment
  • Totals (inclusiveness of all within boundaries):
lca interpretation phase
LCA Interpretation Phase
  • Over life cycle, monetary costs are not recovered from high installation cost of green roof
  • Other categories evaluated decidedly favor green roof installation
  • Tough to compare to other LCAs performed on green roofs due to unique functional unit
take home messages
Take Home Messages

1. University of Toledo can benefit from the installation of a green roof, because LEED many accreditation points can be accumulated

2 Cost of installing a green roof on an existing structure will not be met by energy savings costs

3. Other than monetary cost, all other areas of the LCA favored green roof installation