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Brief Outline of Mexican History. European Conquest. Pre-Columbian civilizations include the Olmec, Teotuhuacan, Mayan, Zapotec, Toltec, Aztec 1519: Conquest of Mexico by Cortes Aztec Emperor Moctezuma Prophecies of Quetzlcoatl La Malinche -- mestizaje

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european conquest
European Conquest

Pre-Columbian civilizations include the Olmec, Teotuhuacan, Mayan, Zapotec, Toltec, Aztec

1519: Conquest of Mexico by Cortes

Aztec Emperor Moctezuma

Prophecies of Quetzlcoatl

La Malinche -- mestizaje

1521-1810 New Spain – included Central America, southwestern North America, the Caribbean, the Phillipines

new spain 1521 1810
New Spain 1521-1810

Feudal social system

Conservative Roman Catholicism throughout the Empire

Class divisions

Spaniards – in charge of government

Criollos (Creoles) – Spanish descent born in New Spain – major land holders

Mestizos – mixed Spanish and Indian descent

Indians – peasants, agricultural workers, often tied to landholdings as serfs had been in Europe

19 th century mexico
19th Century Mexico

1807: Napoleon invaded Spain

1810: Declaration of Mexican Independence

1810-1821: War of Independence

1821: 1st Empire of Mexico > Republic

1836: Republic of Texas declares independence 1845: Texas is annexed to the United States

1832-1855: Dominance of General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna in Mexican government

1846-1848: War with U.S. led to annexation of territory that became CA, NV, UT, AZ, NM and CO

1855: Santa Anna overthrown

19 th century mexico5
19th Century Mexico

1857: new Constitution that did not mandate Roman Catholicism as state religion

1857-1861: War of Reform – civil war

1860s: military occupation by France

2nd Mexican Empire: installation of Emperor Maximilian and Empress Carlota – favored limited monarchy

Emperor overthrown and executed by Benito Juarez’s forces

1867: Restoration of Republic

1876-1911: Dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz

20 th century mexico
20th Century Mexico

1910-1921: Mexican Revolution

Leaders with conflicting aims included Francisco Madero, Emiliano Zapata, Pancho Villa, Pascual Orozco, Venustiano Carranza – most assassinated during revolution

1917: Mexican Constitution of 1917

1920: Alvaro Obregon elected President – instituted many reforms in social liberalizalition, curbed the power of the Roman Catholic church, improved education, granted women’s civil rights

1926-1929: Cristero War

1929: Formation of National Mexican Party (PNM) > Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI) – dominant throughout 20th c.