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Programming Fundamentals. Topic 1 Introduction to Programming. Objectives. Define the terminology used in programming Explain the tasks performed by a programmer Understand the employment opportunities for programmers and software engineers Become aware of structured design

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programming fundamentals

Programming Fundamentals

Topic 1 Introduction to Programming

  • Define the terminology used in programming
  • Explain the tasks performed by a programmer
  • Understand the employment opportunities for programmers and software engineers
  • Become aware of structured design
  • A typical C++ program-development environment.
  • Study variable and
    • How to declare
    • How to use
  • Become familiar with the basic components of a C++ program, including identifiers
programming a computer
Programming a Computer
  • It is important to understand the relationship between the terms programs, programmers, and programming languages.
  • Programs - The directions that humans give to computers
  • Programmers - The people who create these directions
  • Programming Languages – Special languages used by programmers to communicate directions to a computer
the programmer s job
The Programmer’s Job
  • Programmers help solve computer problems
  • Employee or freelance
  • Typical steps involved
    • Meet with user to determine problem
    • Convert the problem into a program
    • Test the program
    • Provide user manual
what traits should a software developer possess
What Traits Should a Software Developer Possess?
  • Analytical skills
  • Communication skills
  • Creativity
  • Customer-service skills
  • Detail oriented
  • Problem-solving skills
  • Teamwork
  • Technical skills
employment opportunities
Employment Opportunities
  • Computer software engineer: designs an appropriate solution to a user’s problem
  • Computer programmer: codes a computer solution
  • Coding is the process of translating a computer solution into a language a computer can understand
  • Some positions call for both engineering and programming
structured programming
Structured Programming
  • Structured design
    • Dividing a problem into smaller subproblems
  • Structured programming
    • Implementing a structured design
  • The structured design approach is also called:
    • Top-down (or bottom-up) design
    • Stepwise refinement
    • Modular design

#include <iostream>

using namespace std;

int main()


const float KM_PER_MILE = 1.609;

float miles, kms;

cout << “Enter the distance in miles: ”;

cin >> miles;

kms = KM_PER_MILE * miles;

cout << “The distance in kilometers is ” << kms << endl;

return 0;


testing execution debugging
Testing, Execution, Debugging

Common error sources

  • Violations of grammar rules of the high level language
  • Errors that can occur during execution
  • Errors in the design of the algorithm
typical c development environment
Typical C++ Development Environment
  • C++ systems generally consist of three parts: a program development environment, the language and the C++ Standard Library.
  • C++ programs typically go through six phases: edit, preprocess, compile, link, load and execute.
typical c development environment cont
Typical C++ Development Environment (Cont.)
  • Phase 1 consists of editing a file with an editor program, normally known simply as an editor.
    • Type a C++ program (source code) using the editor.
    • Make any necessary corrections.
    • Save the program.
    • C++ source code filenames often end with the .cpp, .cxx, .cc or .C extensions (note that C is in uppercase) which indicate that a file contains C++ source code.
typical c development environment cont1
Typical C++ Development Environment (Cont.)
  • Linux editors: vi and emacs.
  • C++ software packages for Microsoft Windows such as Microsoft Visual C++ ( have editors integrated into the programming environment.
  • You can also use a simple text editor, such as Notepad in Windows, to write your C++ code.
  • integrated development environment (IDE)
    • Provide tools that support the software-development process, including editors for writing and editing programs and debuggers for locating logic errors-errors that cause programs to execute incorrectly.
typical c development environment cont2
Typical C++ Development Environment (Cont.)
  • Popular IDEs
    • Microsoft® Visual Studio 2010 Express Edition
    • Dev C++
    • NetBeans
    • Eclipse
    • CodeLite
typical c development environment cont3
Typical C++ Development Environment (Cont.)
  • In phase 2, you give the command to compile the program.
    • A preprocessor program executes automatically before the compiler’s translation phase begins (so we call preprocessing Phase 2 and compiling Phase 3).
    • The C++ preprocessor obeys commands called preprocessor directives, which indicate that certain manipulations are to be performed on the program before compilation.
    • These manipulations usually include other text files to be compiled, and perform various text replacements.
    • Adetailed discussion of preprocessor features appears in Appendix E, Preprocessor.
typical c development environment cont4
Typical C++ Development Environment (Cont.)
  • In Phase 3, the compiler translates the C++ program into machine-language code-also referred to as object code.
typical c development environment cont5
Typical C++ Development Environment (Cont.)
  • Phase 4 is called linking.
    • The object code produced by the C++ compiler typically contains “holes” due to these missing parts.
    • A linker links the object code with the code for the missing functions to produce an executable program.
    • If the program compiles and links correctly, an executable image is produced.
typical c development environment cont6
Typical C++ Development Environment (Cont.)
  • Phase 5 is called loading.
    • Before a program can be executed, it must first be placed in memory.
    • This is done by the loader, which takes the executable image from disk and transfers it to memory.
    • Additional components from shared libraries that support the program are also loaded.
typical c development environment cont7
Typical C++ Development Environment (Cont.)
  • Phase 6: Execution
    • Finally, the computer, under the control of its CPU, executes the program one instruction at a time.
    • Some modern computer architectures can execute several instructions in parallel.
typical c development environment cont8
Typical C++ Development Environment (Cont.)
  • Problems That May Occur at Execution Time
    • Programs might not work on the first try.
    • Each of the preceding phases can fail because of various errors that we’ll discuss throughout this book.
    • If this occurred, you’d have to return to the edit phase, make the necessary corrections and proceed through the remaining phases again to determine that the corrections fixed the problem(s).
    • Most programs in C++ input or output data.
typical c development environment cont9
Typical C++ Development Environment (Cont.)
  • Certain C++ functions take their input from cin (the standard input stream; pronounced “see-in”), which is normally the keyboard, but cin can be redirected to another device.
  • Data is often output to cout (the standard output stream; pronounced “see-out”), which is normally the computer screen, but cout can be redirected to another device.
  • When we say that a program prints a result, we normally mean that the result is displayed on a screen.
typical c development environment cont10
Typical C++ Development Environment (Cont.)
  • Data may be output to another devices, such as disks and hardcopy printers.
  • There is also a standard error stream referred to as cerr. The cerr stream is used for displaying error messages.
  • Give a name to a memory location
    • Compiler accesses specific memory location when program uses a given variable
  • Refer to objects in the program for which the value can change
  • Declaration

type variableName; // or

type variableName = initializer_expression;

  • Variables Declaration
    • Can be either initialized or uninitialized…
    • If variable is uninitialized Contents must be considered “garbage value”
  • Examples:

int age = 18;

double GPA = 3.25, credits;

char letterGrade = ‘A’;

bool ok, done = false;

data types
Data Types
  • Defines a set of values and operations that can be performed on those values
  • integers
    • positive and negative whole numbers,

e.g. 5, -52, 342222

    • short, int, long
    • represented internally in binary
    • predefined constants INT_MIN and INT_MAX
data types con t
Data Types (con’t)
  • Floating point (real)
    • number has two parts, integral and fractional
    • e.g. 2.5, 3.66666666, -.000034, 5.0
    • float, double, long double
    • stored internally in binary as mantissa and exponent
    • 10.0 and 10 are stored differently in memory
data types con t1
Data Types (con’t)
  • Boolean
    • named for George Boole
    • represent conditional values
    • values: true and false
data types con t2
Data Types (con’t)
  • Characters
    • represent individual character values

E.g. ’A’ ’a’ ’2’ ’*’ ’”’ ’ ’

    • stored in 1 byte of memory
    • special characters: escape sequences

E.g. ’\n’ ’\b’ ’\r’ ’\t’ ‘\’’

string class
string class
  • Strings but not built-in, but come from library
  • Classes extended C++
  • string literal enclosed in double quotes

E.g.: “Enter speed: “ “ABC” “B” “true” “1234”

  • #include <string>
    • for using string identifiers, but not needed for literals
  • Consist of letters, digits, and the underscore character (_)
  • Must begin with a letter or underscore
  • C++ is case sensitive
    • NUMBER is not the same as number
  • Two predefined identifiers are cout and cin
  • Unlike reserved words, predefined identifiers may be redefined, but it is not a good idea
identifiers continued
Identifiers (continued)
  • The following are legal identifiers in C++:
    • first
    • conversion
    • payRate
  • Programs are step-by-step instructions that tell a computer how to perform a task
  • Programmers use programming languages to communicate with the computer
  • Structured design
    • Problem is divided into smaller subproblems
    • Each subproblem is solved
    • Combine solutions to all subproblems
  • Identifiers consists of letters, digits, and underscores, and begins with letter or underscore
  • Zak, D. (2013). An Introduction to Programming with C++. 7th ed. Course Technology, Massachusetts.
  • Bronson, G.J. (2006). A First Book of C++: From Here To There, 3rd ed. Course Technology, Massachusetts.
  • Malik, D.S. (2009). Introduction to C++ Programming, Brief International ed. Course Technology, Massachusetts.
  • Friedman, F.L. & Koffman, E.B. (2011). Problem Solving, Abstraction, and Design Using C++. 6th ed. Pearson Education, Massachusetts.
  • Adams, J. & Nyhoff, L. (2003). C++ An Introduction to Computing. 3rd ed. Pearson Education, New Jersey.
  • Deitel, H.M. & Deitel, A.S. (2012). C++ How To Program, 8th ed. Pearson Education, London.