Commonidentity4 1Three or morefreelyinteractingindividuals 3Collectivegoals Collectivenorms2 Groups Group – two (three) or more employees who interact with each other in such a manner that the behavior and/or performance of a member is influenced by the behavior and/or performance of other members. There are formal and informal groups.
Functions of Formal Groups Organizational Functions Individual Functions 1. Accomplish complex, interdependent tasks that are beyond the capabilities of individuals.2. Generate new or creative ideas and solutions.3. Coordinate interdepartmental efforts.4. Provide a problem-solving mechanism for complex problems requiring varied information and assessments.5. Implement complex decisions.6. Socialize and train newcomers. 1. Satisfy the individual’s need for affiliation.2. Develop, enhance, and confirm the individual’s self-esteem and sense of identity.3. Give individuals an opportunity to test and share their perceptions of social reality.4. Reduce the individual’s anxieties and feelings of insecurity and powerless- ness. 5. Provide a problem-solving mechanism for personal and interpersonal problems.
Why do people form groups? • Satisfaction of needs – security, social, esteem • Proximity and attraction • Group goals • Economics
Performing Norming Adjourning Storming Return toIndependence Forming Dependence/interdependence Independence Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theoryof Group Development
Forming Storming Norming Performing IndividualIssues “How do I fit in?” “What’s myrole here?” “What do theothers expectme to do?” “How can I bestperform my role?” GroupIssues “Why are we here?” “Why are wefighting overwho’s incharge and whodoes what?” “Can we agreeon roles andwork as a team?” “Can we do thejob properly?” Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theoryof Group Development (continued) Mutual Acceptance Communication & Decision-making Motivation & Productivity Control & Organization
12-5 Extended Tuckman Model • De-norming. A natural erosion of standards of conduct. Group members drift in different directions. • De-storming. A mirror opposite of the storming stage. An undercurrent of discontent slowly comes to the surface. Individual resistance increases and cohesiveness declines. • De-forming. Work group literally falls apart as subgroups battle for control. Performance declines rapidly because the whole job is no longer being done.
Cohesiveness • Closeness or commonness of attitude, behavior, and performance. • Acts as a force to remain in a group • Allows a sense of belonging • Cohesive groups involves individuals who are attracted to one another • Group goals and member goals are compatible and clearly specified • Group has a charismatic leader • Strong reputation for completing task • Group size is optimal • Supportive
Role Behavior • Roles: “Sets of behaviors that persons expect of occupants of a position.” • Role overload: “Occurs when the sum total of what role senders expect of the focal person far exceeds what he or she is able to do.” • Role conflict: “Experienced when different members of the role set expect different things of the focal person.” (Knowing what to do but not being able to do it.) • Role ambiguity: “Occurs when members of the role set fail to communicate to the focal person expectations they have or information needed to perform the role, either because they do not have the information or because they deliberately withhold it.” (Not knowing what to do.)
Functional Roles Performedby Group Members Task Roles Description Initiator Suggests new goals or ideasInformation seeker/giver Clarifies key issuesOpinion seeker/giver Clarifies pertinent valuesElaborator Promotes greater understandingCoordinator Pulls together ideas and suggestionsOrienter Keeps group headed toward its stated goal(s)Evaluator Tests group’s accomplishmentsEnergizer Prods group to move along or to accomplish moreProcedural technician Performs routine dutiesRecorder Performs a “group memory” function
Functional Roles Performedby Group Members(Continued) Maintenance Roles DescriptionEncourager Fosters group solidarityHarmonizer Mediates conflict through reconciliation or humorCompromiser Helps resolve conflict by meeting others “half way”Gatekeeper Encourages all group members to participateStandard setter Evaluates the quality of group processesCommentator Records comments on group processes/dynamicsFollower Serves as a passive audience
More on Roles • Role conflict • Person-role conflict • Intrarole conflict • Interrole conflict • Results of Role Conflict
Social Norms Norm: “An attitude, opinion, feeling, or action -- shared by two or more people -- that guides their behavior.” Why Norms Are Enforced • Help the group or organization survive • Clarify or simplify behavioral expectations • Help individuals avoid embarrassing situations • Clarify the group’s or organization’s central values and/or unique identity
A Contingency Model forStaffing Work Groups Objective(s) Spread talentaround • Improve performance of all work groups • Train and develop new talent Staffing decision • Maximize performance of best group(s) Concentratetalent
Evidence of Problems with Groups • Social Loafing • Groupthink • Satisficing • Shared/Unshared Information • Group Polarization (the “Risky Shift”)
Why is Group Performance (sometimes) less than the sum of Individual Performance? • Social loafing (individuals withhold effort) • Reduced by monitoring/evaluation • May be related to individual traits (collectivism vs. individualism)
Stepladder Technique for Avoiding Social Loafing • Example of a Four-Person Group: • Two core group members work on problem. • Third member joins group and presents recommendations (followed by three-person discussion). • Fourth member joins group and presents recommendations (followed by four-person discussion and final decision making).
Symptoms of Groupthink • Invulnerability • Inherent morality • Rationalization • Stereotyped views of opposition • Self-censorship • Illusion of unanimity • Peer pressure • Mindguards
Preventing Groupthink • Every group member a critical evaluator • Avoid rubber-stamp decisions • Different groups explore same problems • Rely on subgroup debates and outside experts • Assign role of devil’s advocate • Rethink a consensus
Satisficing • Groups often adopt the first alternative that is acceptable to all members rather than continuing to search for an optimal alternative
Shared/Unshared Information Even though Individual Group Members have Unique Information, They tend to Discuss Information that is Shared Shared Information Unshared Information Unshared Information
Why Teams are Formed • Enhanced productivity • Technical or functional skills • Problem solving and decision-making skills • Interpersonal skills • Flattening organizations • Need for flexibility and quicker decisions • Workforce diversity • Improved quality • Increased customer satisfaction
Effective Team Requirements • Top level commitment and goals • Trust between managers and employees • Taking risks and sharing information • Time, resources, and commitment to training