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Chapter Eight

Chapter Eight

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Chapter Eight

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  1. Chapter Eight Local Area Networks: Internetworking Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User’s Approach, Fourth Edition

  2. Introduction • Many times it is necessary to connect a local area network to another local area network or to a wide area network • Different ways on how different LANs are connected • Business Application Cases (to p3) (to p41)

  3. Connecting LANs • 6 types of network interconnection hardware are available: • see Figure 12.18 • a) Hub – use to connect workstations together • b) bridges - use to expand LANs with same protocol • c) switches- work faster since need no dest. address • d) routers- OSI level 3, uses translate dest. address • e) brouters - combination of router and bridges • f) gateways - connect different protocol of LANs • g) use of backbone as a structure for data interchange • h) use of LAN switch to connect to MAN or WAN (Note: Now we usually use low CPU computer as part of these devices, if programmable) (to p4) (to p5) (to p6) (to p20) (to p35) (to p38) (to p39) (to p40) (to p2)

  4. FIGURE 12-18Network interconnection can occur at various layers of the OSI model. (to p3) hub

  5. Hubs • Hub interconnects two or more workstations into a local area network • When a workstation transmits to a hub, hub immediately resends the data frame out to all connecting links • Can be managed or unmanaged • A managed hub possesses enough processing power that it can be managed from a remote location (to p3)

  6. Bridges (to p7) • A bridge (or bridge-like device) can be used to connect two similar LANs, such as two CSMA/CD LANs • Can also be used to connect two closely similar LANs, such as a CSMA/CD LAN and a token ring LAN • Examines • destination address in a frame and either forwards this frame onto next LAN or does not • source address in a frame and places this address in a routing table, to be used for future routing decisions • Two main types • Transparent Bridge • Remote Bridge • Spanning tree solution to installing too many bridges when connection LANs together (Optional topic!) (to p9) (to p12) (to p13) (to p3)

  7. Bridges (continued) (to p6) (to p8) or

  8. FIGURE 12-21LANs interconnected with a backbone LAN. (to p3) (FDDI) (to p6)

  9. Transparent Bridge • A bridge observes each frame that arrives at a port, extracts the source address from the frame, and places that address in the port’s routing table • A transparent bridge is found with CSMA/CD LANs • Can also convert one frame format to another • This does not happen too often anymore since most networks are CSMA/CD • Note that some people / manufacturers call a bridge such as this a gateway or sometimes a router • Removes headers and trailers from one frame format and inserts (encapsulates) headers and trailers for the second frame format (to p10) (to p11) (to p6)

  10. Transparent Bridge (continued) (to p9)

  11. Transparent Bridge (continued) (to p9)

  12. Remote Bridge • Capable of passing a data frame from one LAN to another when the two LANs are separated by a long distance and there is a WAN connecting the two LANs • Takes frame before it leaves the first LAN and encapsulates the WAN headers and trailers • When the packet arrives at destination remote bridge, that bridge removes WAN headers and trailers leaving original frame (to p19) (to p6)

  13. Spanning Tree Algorithm • What happens if you have many LANs interconnected with multiple bridges, such as shown in the next slide? • Data that leaves one workstation could travel to a bridge, across the next network, into the next bridge, and back onto the first network • A packet may continue to cycle like this forever! (to p14)

  14. Spanning Tree Algorithm (continued) (to p15) Data confusing areas

  15. Spanning Tree Algorithm (continued) (to p16) Solution method

  16. Spanning Tree Algorithm (continued) • How do we stop this from happening? • Disconnect one of the bridges? • Maybe we want bridge redundancy in case one bridge fails • Apply the spanning tree algorithm? • How is the algorithm applied? (to p17) (to p6)

  17. Spanning Tree Algorithm (continued) • Step 1: Designate a root bridge • Step 2: Mark one port of each bridge as the root port • Root port is port with the least-cost path from that bridge to the root bridge • Root ports are denoted with a star in Figure 8-7(a) • Step 3: Select a designated bridge for each LAN • Designated bridge has the least-cost path between that LAN and root bridge • Mark the corresponding port that connects that LAN to its designated bridge with two stars (Figure 8-7(b)) • Step 4: Remove redundant ports • If port has no stars, that port is redundant and can be “removed” • Keep all ports with one or two stars • Resulting configuration is shown in Figure 8-7(c) • Note there is now only one way to get to any LAN or bridge from any other LAN or bridge (to p18) (to p18) (to p18) (to p16)

  18. Spanning Tree Algorithm (continued) (to p17) (to p17) (to p17)

  19. Remote Bridge (continued) (to p12)

  20. Switches • A combination of hub and bridge • Can interconnect two or more workstations, but like a bridge, it observes traffic flow and learns • When a frame arrives at a switch, switch examines destination address and forwards frame out the one necessary connection • Workstations that connect to a hub are on a shared segment • Workstations that connect to a switch are on a switched segment (to p22) (to p24) (to p21)

  21. Switches (continued) • The backplane of a switch is fast enough to support multiple data transfers at one time • A switch that employs cut-through architecture is passing on frame before entire frame has arrived at switch • Multiple workstations connected to a switch use dedicated segments • This is a very efficient way to isolate heavy users from the network • Can allow simultaneous access to multiple servers, or multiple simultaneous connections to a single server • The use of switches in virtual LANs • Full duplex Switches (to p25) (to p26) (to p31) (to p33) (to p3)

  22. Switches (continued) Or (to p23)

  23. FIGURE 12-19A switch allows simultaneous connection of LAN segments. (to p3) (to p20)

  24. Why Segment or Internetwork Local Area Networks? • To separate / connect one corporate division with another • To connect two LANs with different protocols • To connect LAN to Internet • To break LAN into segments to relieve traffic congestion • To provide a security wall between two different types of users (to p20)

  25. Switches (continued) (to p21)

  26. Isolating Traffic Patterns and Providing Multiple Access • Whether shared or dedicated segments are involved, the primary goal of a switch is to isolate a particular pattern of traffic from other patterns of traffic or from the remainder of the network • Switches, because of their backplane, can also allow multiple paths of communications to simultaneously occur • Alternative design (to p27) (to p28) (to p29)

  27. Isolating Traffic Patterns and Providing Multiple Access (continued) (to p26)

  28. Isolating Traffic Patterns and Providing Multiple Access (continued) (to p26)

  29. Isolating Traffic Patterns and Providing Multiple Access (continued) • Using a pair of routers, it is possible to interconnect to switched segments, essentially creating one large local area network (to p30)

  30. Isolating Traffic Patterns and Providing Multiple Access (continued) (to p21)

  31. Virtual LANs • Virtual LAN (VLAN) – logical subgroup within a LAN that is created via switches and software rather than by manually moving wiring from one network device to another • Even though employees and their actual computer workstations may be scattered throughout the building, LAN switches and VLAN software can be used to create a “network within a network” (to p32)

  32. Virtual LANs (continued) • A relatively new standard, IEEE 802.1Q, was designed to allow multiple devices to intercommunicate and work together to create a virtual LAN • Instead of sending technician to a wiring closet to move a workstation cable from one switch to another, an 802.1Q-compliant switch can be remotely configured by a network administrator (to p21)

  33. Full-Duplex Switches • Allow for simultaneous transmission and reception of data to and from a workstation • This full-duplex connection helps to eliminate collisions • To support a full-duplex connection to a switch, at least two pairs of wires are necessary • One for the receive operation • One for the transmit operation • Most people install four pairs today, so wiring is not the problem (to p34) (to p21)

  34. Full Duplex Switches (continued) (to p33)

  35. Routers • Connects a LAN to a LAN, a LAN to a WAN or a WAN to a WAN • Accepts an outgoing packet, removes any LAN headers and trailers, and encapsulates the necessary WAN headers and trailers (to p36)

  36. Routers (continued) • Because a router has to make wide area network routing decisions, router has to dig down into the network layer of the packet to retrieve the network destination address • Thus, routers are often called “layer 3 devices” • They operate at the third layer, or OSI network layer, of the packet • Routers often incorporate firewall functions • An example of a router’s operation is shown on the next slide (to p37)

  37. Routers (continued) (to p3)

  38. FIGURE 12-20Bridges connect networks that use the same protocols. Gateways connect networks that use dissimilar protocols. (to p3)

  39. FIGURE 12-21LANs interconnected with a backbone LAN. (to p3) (FDDI)

  40. FIGURE 12-22This diagram shows how a LAN switch can be used to connect several LANs together and to connect LANs to a WAN or MAN. (to p3)

  41. LAN Internetworking In Action: A Small Office Revisited • Recall the In Action example from Chapter Seven • A small office with 20 workstations in one room and 15 workstations in another room were connected to a server via 100BaseTX • One hub was kept in a closet near the 20 workstations while a second hub was near the server (to p42)

  42. LAN Internetworking In Action: A Small Office Revisited (continued) (to p43)

  43. LAN Internetworking In Action: A Small Office Revisited (continued) • Now Hannah wants to connect the LAN to the Internet • She adds a router next to the server and connects it to the hub • She connects the router to a high-speed telephone line such as a T-1 service • She will also have to program the router to perform IP addressing and firewall functions (to p44)

  44. LAN Internetworking In Action: A Small Office Revisited (continued) (to p45)

  45. LAN Internetworking In Action: A Small Office Revisited (continued) • Now network usage is so high that Hannah must consider segmenting the network • She decides to install a database server near the original server and replace both hubs with switches (to p46)

  46. LAN Internetworking In Action: A Small Office Revisited (continued) (to p2)