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Adding Nutritional Information to Texas food chain restaurants. Shekinah Harris, MPH student Walden University PUBH 6165-3 Dr. Robert P. Marino  Fall quarter, 2010. Learning Outcomes. Motivate fast food & food chain restaurants to include nutritional facts on the menu

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Adding Nutritional Information to Texas food chain restaurants


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    1. Adding Nutritional Information to Texas food chain restaurants Shekinah Harris, MPH student Walden University PUBH 6165-3 Dr. Robert P. Marino  Fall quarter, 2010

    2. Learning Outcomes • Motivate fast food & food chain restaurants to include nutritional facts on the menu • Implement nutritional facts on the menu • Combat ignorance about nutrition, caloric intake, and nutritional facts • Recognize potential barriers • Identify government policies and standards

    3. Nutrition • Process by which organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and maintenance (Princeton University, 2010) • A means of sustenance and nourishment (Princeton University, 2010) (USDA, 2010) Princeton University. (2010, September 20). nutrition . Retrieved from http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=nutrition United States Department of Agriculture. (USDA) (2010, May 12). News & media. Retrieved from http://www.mypyramid.gov/global_nav/media_resources.html

    4. The Problem Americans Face • 1/3 of United States adults are obese (CDC, 2010a) • 17% of United States children are obese (CDC, 2010a) • 1980 to 2008, obesity rates for adults have doubled and have tripled for children (CDC, 2010a) • Consequences of obesity • Coronary heart disease • Type 2 diabetes • High blood pressure • Stoke • High cholesterol (Long, 2008) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2010a, August 17). Obesity: halting the epidemic by making health easier. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/AAG/obesity.htm Long, Nancy. (2008, October 7). 20 diseases related to obesity (being overweight). Retrieved from http://teamrich.wordpress.com/2008/10/07/20-obesity-related-diseases/

    5. Most At Risk • Children and adolescents are now developing obesity-related- diseases such as type 2 diabetes (CDC, 2010a) • obese children and adolescents are more likely to have risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease – high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and Type 2 diabetes than children who are not obese or overweight (CDC, 2010b) • approximately 80% of children who were overweight at aged 10–15 years were obese adults at age 25 years (CDC, 2010b) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2010a, August 17). Obesity: halting the epidemic by making health easier. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/AAG/obesity.htm Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2010b, March 31).Childhood overweight and obesity. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/index.html

    6. Obesity in Texas • The percentage of adults who are obese in Texas is between 25% - 29% (CDC, 2010a) • 37% of Texans are considered overweight (CDC, 2009b) • 16% of Texan youth from grades 9th – 12th are overweight and 16% are obese (CDC, 2009b) Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (Designer). (2010). adults-obesity-chart. [Web]. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/AAG/obesity.htm Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . (2009b, July 21). Overweight and obesity: texas. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/stateprograms/fundedstates/texas.html

    7. Calories & Caloric Intake • Calorie – unit of energy supplied by food (CDC, 2009a) • Carbohydrates, fats, sugars, and proteins all contain calories • Caloric balance – maintaining body weight, calories consumed from food, calories used from body functions, daily activities, and physical exercise (CDC, 2009a) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2009a, December 7). Overweight and obesity: causes and consequences. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/causes/index.html

    8. Nutritional Fact Labels & Implementation • Nutritional facts labels consist of (FDA, 2009) • Serving size • Calories • Nutrient information • Foot note with Daily Values • Menu Programs (Pulos & Leng, 2010) NutritionData, . (Designer). (2010). nutritionindex. [Web]. Retrieved from http://nutritiondata.self.com Pulos, E.& Leng, K. (2010). Evaluation of a volunatry menu - labeling in full-service restaurants. The American Journal of Public Health, 100(6)1035-1039, Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail?vid=3&hid=9&sid=1cc166d3-3d17-40ab-ac91-255f986ab5a8%40sessionmgr11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=a9h&AN=50615789 doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2009.174839 United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (2009). How to understand and use the nutrition facts label. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/food/labelingnutrition/consumerinformation/ucm078889.htm

    9. Fast-Food & Food Chain Restaurants • Meals eaten away from home (Pulos & Leng, 2010) • Convenient (Pulos & Leng, 2010) • Cheap, energy-dense food (Nestle, 2010) Nestle, M. (2010). Health care reform in action - calorie labeling goes national. New England Journal of Medicine, 2343-2345, Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail?vid=2&hid=9&sid=6c8fe8e3-8823-4b03-875c-10f1b4ac278c%40sessionmgr11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=a9h&AN=51664565 doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1003814 Pulos, E.& Leng, K. (2010). Evaluation of a volunatry menu - labeling in full-service restaurants. The American Journal of Public Health, 100(6)1035-1039, Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail?vid=3&hid=9&sid=1cc166d3-3d17-40ab-ac91-255f986ab5a8%40sessionmgr11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=a9h&AN=50615789 doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2009.174839

    10. The Benefits • Improving customers’ purchases (Nestle, 2010) • Restaurants reduce caloric content of their foods (Nestle, 2010) • Educate the public about the calories in food they are consuming (Nestle, 2010) Nestle, M. (2010). Health care reform in action - calorie labeling goes national. New England Journal of Medicine, 2343-2345, Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail?vid=2&hid=9&sid=6c8fe8e3-8823-4b03-875c-10f1b4ac278c%40sessionmgr11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=a9h&AN=51664565 doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1003814

    11. Potential Barriers • Voluntarily posting visible nutritional facts on menus or menu boards (Nestle, 2010) • Reducing portion sizes (Nestle, 2010) • Reformulating products (Nestle, 2010) • Additional cost • Logistic problems concerning calorie information (Nestle, 2010) Nestle, M. (2010). Health care reform in action - calorie labeling goes national. New England Journal of Medicine, 2343-2345, Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail?vid=2&hid=9&sid=6c8fe8e3-8823-4b03-875c-10f1b4ac278c%40sessionmgr11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=a9h&AN=51664565 doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1003814

    12. Policies & Standards • Health Care Reform Act – Public Law 111-148 (GPO, 2010) • Information is required to be disclosed by restaurants and retail food establishments • It should be noticeable – on the menu or menu board United States Government Printing Office (GPO). (2010). H.r. 3590. Retrieved from http://democrats.senate.gov/reform/patient-protection-affordable-care-act-as-passed.pdf

    13. A New Outlook • Taking control of what you consume • Avoiding large portion sizes (Nestle, 2010) Nestle, M. (2010). Health care reform in action - calorie labeling goes national. New England Journal of Medicine, 2343-2345, Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail?vid=2&hid=9&sid=6c8fe8e3-8823-4b03-875c-10f1b4ac278c%40sessionmgr11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=a9h&AN=51664565 doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1003814

    14. Conclusion • Overweight and Obesity is no longer just personal matters, it is a community effort • Chronic disease and premature death is an issue in the United States • Adding calorie and nutritional labels to menus or menu boards can help patrons better estimate food consumption

    15. Further Reading Sources Texas, Bringing Healthy Back Texas Department of State Health Services. (2009, August 25). Texas! bringing healthy back presents growing community. Retrieved from http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/obesity/default.shtm Public Law 111-148 (p.455) United States Government Printing Office (GPO). (2010). H.r. 3590. Retrieved from http://democrats.senate.gov/reform/patient-protection-affordable-care-act-as-passed.pdf

    16. Further Reading Sources (cont…) “Taking up Space? How Customers React to Health Information and Health Icons on Restaurant Menus” Jones, C. (2009). Taking up space? how customers react to health information and health icons on restaurant menus . Journal of Foodservice, 12(4 (344-363)), Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail?vid=3&hid=9&sid=c2530d19-cd14-48c8-af91-bf19aa2ab1c4%40sessionmgr14&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=a9h&AN=45427194 doi: 10.1080/15378020903344299

    17. References Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (Designer). (2010). adults-obesity-chart. [Web]. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/AAG/obesity.htm Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2009a, December 7). Overweight and obesity: causes and consequences. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/causes/index.html Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . (2009b, July 21). Overweight and obesity: texas. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/stateprograms/fundedstates/texas.html

    18. References (cont…) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2010b, March 31).Childhood overweight and obesity. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/index.html Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2010a, August 17). Obesity: halting the epidemic by making health easier. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/AAG/obesity.htm Hochberg, L. (2008, January 14). Bid to print nutrition facts on menus raises debate . Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/business/jan-june08/food_01-14.html Long, Nancy. (2008, October 7). 20 diseases related to obesity (being overweight). Retrieved from http://teamrich.wordpress.com/2008/10/07/20-obesity-related-diseases/

    19. References (cont…) Nestle, M. (2010). Health care reform in action - calorie labeling goes national. New England Journal of Medicine, 2343-2345, Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail?vid=2&hid=9&sid=6c8fe8e3-8823-4b03-875c-10f1b4ac278c%40sessionmgr11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=a9h&AN=51664565 doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1003814 NutritionData. (Designer). (2010). nutritionindex. [Web]. Retrieved from http://nutritiondata.self.com Powell, L.M., & Chaloupka, F.J. (2009). Food prices and obesity: evidence and policy implications for taxes and subsidies. The Milbank Quarterly, 87(1) 229-257, Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail?vid=1&hid=9&sid=2a27c3d6-b572-4b35-9a35-c5d45d0de35b%40sessionmgr4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=mnh&AN=19298422#db=mnh&AN=19298422

    20. References (cont…) Princeton University. (2010, September 20). nutrition . Retrieved from http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=nutrition Pulos, E.& Leng, K. (2010). Evaluation of a volunatry menu - labeling in full-service restaurants. The American Journal of Public Health, 100(6)1035-1039, Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail?vid=3&hid=9&sid=1cc166d3-3d17-40ab-ac91-255f986ab5a8%40sessionmgr11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=a9h&AN=50615789 doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2009.17483 Texas Department of State Health Services. (2009, August 25). Texas! bringing healthy back presents growing community. Retrieved from http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/obesity/default.shtm

    21. References (cont…) United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (2009). How to understand and use the nutrition facts label. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/food/labelingnutrition/consumerinformation/ucm078889.htm United States Department of Agriculture. (USDA) (2010, May 12). News & media. Retrieved from http://www.mypyramid.gov/global_nav/media_resources.html United States Government Printing Office (GPO). (2010). H.r. 3590. Retrieved from http://democrats.senate.gov/reform/patient-protection-affordable-care-act-as-passed.pdf