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Food Value Chain Transformations in Developing Countries: Nutritional Implications . Miguel I. Gómez and Katie Ricketts Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management Cornell University. Joint FAO/WHO Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2 ) PREPARATORY TECHNICAL MEETING

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Food Value Chain Transformations in Developing Countries: Nutritional Implications


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food value chain transformations in developing countries nutritional implications

Food Value Chain Transformations in Developing Countries: Nutritional Implications

Miguel I. Gómez and Katie Ricketts

Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management

Cornell University

Joint FAO/WHO Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2)

PREPARATORY TECHNICAL MEETING

FAO Headquarters, Rome, Italy

13-15 November 2013

objective and approach

How transformation of food value chains (FVCs) influences the triple malnutrition burden in developing countries

  • Identify areas that require more attention from researchers and decision-makers
  • Develop a FVC typology that takes into account the participants, the target market, and the products offered
  • Propose selected hypotheses on the relationship between each FVC category and elements of the triple malnutrition burden

Objective and Approach

slide3

Key differences between developing country food systems in 1980 and 2010

Source: Gómez et al.(2013)

developing country fvc transformation

Share of food reaching consumers through longer FVCs has increased due to changes in food consumption patterns

  • rapid urbanization
  • income growth
  • expansion of modern retailers, processors and distributors.
  • Demand for products such as meats, dairy, fruits and vegetables is increasing
  • Market for processed/packaged food categories is expanding
  • Many rural residents depend on FVCs because most of them are net-food buyers and are employed in the food sector

Developing Country FVC Transformation

fresh fruit and vegetable market share of modern and traditional fvc retail sales

Fresh fruit and vegetable market share of modern and traditional FVC retail sales

Note: Countries arranged in order of GDP per capita (World Bank, 2008)

Sources: Tschirley et al. (2009), Zambia and Kenya; Reardon et al. (2010), Mexico and Nicaragua; Gorton et al. (2011), Thailand.

retail outlet choice for meat purchases in ethiopia

Retail outlet choice for meat purchases in Ethiopia

c

c

Source: Authors’ creation based on Jabbar and Admassu (2010).

factors f acilitating food access in traditional fvcs particularly for perishables

Ability to offer products at lower prices than supermarket (Schipmannand Qaim 2010; Lippe et al. 2010)

  • Considerable flexibility in product standards (Lee et al. 2010)
  • Product attributes valued by consumers are different relative to supermarkets (Minten 2008)
  • Convenience for consumers due to flexible retail market locations (Tschirleyet al. 2009)

Factors facilitatingfood access in traditional FVCs (particularly for perishables)

factors affecting food access in traditional fvcs particularly for perishables

Lack of postharvest and distribution infrastructure imply higher price variability and limited year round availability (Gómez et al. 2011)

  • Post-harvest losses (in volume and in quality) are huge (Kader 2005)
  • Seasonality in crop/livestock production affects disproportionally food retail prices in traditional FVCs (Kumar and Sharma, 2006)

Factors affecting food access in traditional FVCs (particularly for perishables)

synthesis traditional fvcs and nutrition

Food products rich in micronutrients, and staple foods rich in calories tend to be more affordable in traditional FVCs

  • Deliver nutritional benefits to rural residents who are largely missed by modern FVCs
  • Important nutritional benefits accrue to low income people in urban areas - FVC retailers enjoy cost and location advantages
  • More flexibility to target consumers willing to settle for lower perishable food standards.
  • Lack of access to adequate post-harvest/distribution infrastructure may limit year round availability and result in high intermediation costs

Synthesis - Traditional FVCs and Nutrition

supermarket growth and food products

Rapid expansion of modern supermarkets (Neven and Reardon 2009; Reardon and Berdegué 2002; Reardon et al. 2003)

  • Benefits from increased micronutrient intakes associated with the dietary diversity are unlikely to reach all consumers
  • Low income households buy processed foods in supermarkets, but not perishables (Cadilhonet al. 2006; Guarin2011)
  • High standards make micronutrient-rich foods available in supermarkets less affordable the poor (Dolan and Humphrey 2000)
  • Lower income households engage in ‘cherry-picking’ food shopping behavior (Tschirley and Hichaambwa 2010; Cadilhonet al. 2006)

Supermarket Growth and Food Products

supermarket share in processed packaged foods and in perishable foods

Supermarket share in processed/packaged foods and in perishable foods

Source: Euromonitor (2012a), Gorton et al. (2012), Goldman and Vanhonaker (2006).

synthesis modern fvcs and nutrition

Help alleviate micronutrient deficiencies by offering a wide assortment of products year-round for a diverse diet, but only for urban, relatively wealthy households

  • Increased market for processed/packaged foods…
  • Contribute to obesity/overweight malnutrition (among other factors)
  • low priced packaged/processed foods substitute for fresh produce and livestock products
  • Empirical evidence to examine causality between supermarkets and overweight malnutrition is needed

Synthesis - Modern FVCs and Nutrition

drivers and links to diets

Market for processed/packaged foods growing five times faster in developing countries

  • Much of this growth fueled sales to lower income consumers through traditional FVC retailers in urban and rural areas
  • Business models targeting the poor (bottom of the pyramid) and presence of economies of scale in food manufacturing
  • Processed/packaged foods sold through these FVCs may help alleviate (prevent) undernourishment in remote rural areas
  • Expansion through traditional retailers in urban centers may be associated with excess weight and obesity, (Wang et al. 2002; Mendez et al. 2005).

Drivers and Links to Diets

synthesis modern to traditional fvcs and nutrition

May have mixed influence on nutrition, depending on the population segment targeted

  • can assist help prevent or reduce undernourishment in some rural, remote areas…
  • but, they can also contribute over-nutrition in urban areas for patrons of traditional FVC retail outlets
  • Enthusiasm for public-private partnerships to address micronutrient deficiencies
  • Must evaluate the impact of partnerships to guide donor, government and food industry actions

Synthesis: Modern-to-traditional FVCs and Nutrition

relevance to nutrition

Developing country FVCs are primarily domestically oriented (Gómez et al. 2011)

  • Implications for smallholder farmers and traders in rural areas because most of them are net food buyers (Barrett 2008)
  • Farmers who participate in supermarket chains enjoy higher income opportunities (Bellemare 2012; Miyata et al. 2009)…
  • …but they are generally farmers with superior endowments (land, education, etc.)

Relevance to Nutrition

drivers and links to nutrition

The poorest farmers and traders may benefit indirectly by linking with modern FVCs (Maertensand Swinnen2009)

  • Increased income opportunities reduce the risk of household food insufficient caloric intakes in rural areas (e.g., Ndhleve et al. 2012; Smith et al. 2005)
  • Little is known on income opportunities impacts on diet diversification and influence on micronutrient deficiencies

Drivers and Links to Nutrition

concluding comments

Difficult to generalize the influence of food value chain transformation on nutrition

  • Interventions to increase the efficiency of traditional FVCs can improve access to micronutrients (urban and rural poor)
  • Interactions between traditional and modern participants suggest the need for a more nuanced view of food chains
  • Opportunities for public-private to partnerships to use food fortification to reduce micronutrient deficiencies
  • Future research should address…
  • 1) links between FVC transformation and micronutrient deficiencies
  • 2) demand substitution effects between food groups

Concluding Comments

slide24

Thank You!

Questions or Comments?

Miguel I. Gómez

Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management

Cornell University

340D Warren Hall

Ithaca, NY 14853

P: 607-255-8159

E: mig7@cornell.edu