Welcome to AP English!Literature & Composition Collect Your Institute Materials Institute Notebook (Check your pages: Agenda i-vi, 1-212; Appendix 1-15) College Board Workshop Handbook College Board Special Focus:Curriculum Module Textbook: Literature and Composition(Carol Jago, et al) Write your name on each item! Computer: AP Central and SAS Curriculum Pathways® www.apcentral.collegeboard.com / www.sascurriculumpathways SAS UserName: SASCP11 Password: APSummer Student user name: APEnglish
Introductions(Fill outIndex Card) • Name, School, Email • Years of teaching? Years teaching AP? • Titles of 2-3 literary works you most enjoy teaching • Your Major Questions for this AP Institute • Prioritize the week’s top items by your needs: • Reviewing College Board Goals/Content/Standards • Learning to Score AP Multiple-Choice and Essay Questions • Teaching Close Reading and Literary Analysis/Poetry & Prose • Selecting and Teaching Novels and Plays/Open Question • Planning Syllabi/Lessons • Sharing Syllabi/Lessons • Utilizing Online Learning Resources List others, if you wish.
Institute ResourcesYOU! • Introduce yourself: Name, school, AP experience • Favorite work to teach • Your Major Question for this week • Most important thing a teacher needs to know/ask about AP English
Sally HumbleB. A., Wake Forest UniversityM.A.T.,Ph.D., Duke University • Teacher • Middle School, High School, College, Graduate Education Courses • Writer • Enloe HS English: Required Curriculum/Electives • Duke University TIP AP* Manuals (Lang & Lit) • Faulkner’s Women; “Women in Winesburg, Ohio” • Agora Magazine • SAS Curriculum Pathways®(www.sascurriculumpathways.com) • NC Virtual High School • A “little” novel in progress • Consultant • For Duke TIP, College Board, National Faculty, Prentice Hall, SAS Institute, Inc. • My “been-to” sites for workshops:NY, PA, MD, DE, VA, WV, NC, SC, GA, FL, AK, AL, MS, TX, MI, OH, CA! • Conclusion: English teachers are energetic, fascinating, diverse individuals who are intelligent, dedicated workers and lovers of literature!
Topic 1: Essential Knowledge A. AP Instructional Goals and Curriculum Join Groups A(pre-AP, AP less experienced), OR Groups B(AP more experienced) • Groups A: Survey and discuss, pp. 1-2, p. 4, Notebook • Groups B: Survey and discuss, p. 3-4, Notebook • Create a Chart to make notes:
Collaboration and SharingA. AP Instructional Goals and Curriculum Continue group discussion: • Describe audited AP course curricula. • Respond to the sample audited course and requirements, Workshop Handbook, pp. 31-44 • Respond to the sample Pre-AP/AP program, Enloe High School
Topic 1: Essential Knowledge A. AP Instructional Goals and Curriculum Most important points from group discussions.
Topic 1: Essential KnowledgeA. AP Instructional Goals and Curriculum • What do AP Goals imply about • Course content? • Daily activities? • Atmosphere? • What are the essential principles and practices of an effective Pre-AP/AP English Literature classroom? ExploreJago, Literature and Composition, pp. 1-17.
Assuring EquityWhat are your most important insights and issues?Ideas/Questions from Past Institutes: • Schools should lay a foundation for AP: Pre-AP and Vertical Teaming. • Should there be a minimal requirement for taking an AP course or can any student benefit? • How can open-access AP be maintained without risking graduation? • AP requires student responsibility for college-level work. Student’s work ethic and self-motivation are the most important issues.
Topic 1: Essential Knowledge The AP Lit & Comp class is • a thinking/sharing community of learners • where questions, ideas, critical thinking, and imaginative exploration • flourish through oral discussion and writing about literature.
Topic 1: Essential KnowledgeClassroom Practices • The main emphasis is on close reading (works of literary merit). • Close reading is a structured reading process that focuses on the text and moves from observation and engagement to analysis and interpretation. • Effective AP essays are based on skillful close reading of literary texts and skillful analytic/interpretive writing. • Class discussions should focus on these skills, emphasizing critical thinking, multiple interpretations, and diverse perspectives.
Topic I: Essential KnowledgeB. The AP Exam • Mastery of close reading is required for high- level performance on multiple-choice questions. • An effective AP essay grows out of close reading. The essay expresses an articulate, coherent interpretive argument based on analysis of a text and the literary techniques that convey meaning and artistry. The essay is written in an authentic, congruent voice.
Essential Exam KnowledgeStrategies for Multiple-Choice QuestionsNotebook, p. 9 • Read for the whole drift first • Move rapidly, make temporary guesses • Realize the questions are your allies • Read for implications • Analyze and interpret parts as designated • Master literary terms in advance
Essential Exam KnowledgeStrategies for Effective AP EssaysNotebook, p. 9 • Address Technique—the HOW of the prompt • Address Theme—the WHAT of the prompt • LINK the HOW and the WHAT • Create a logical, reasoned argument that explains the WHY of the prompt: • speaker’s purpose, meanings revealed through literary devices, message • Keep in mind essential CB traits: • Vocabulary, Sentence Structure, Logical Organization, Focus/Elaboration, Rhetorical Power
Essential Exam KnowledgeStrategies for Effective AP Essays • Literary Terms -- definitions and applications, p. 11 • Mastering the “how” and “what” elements: Chart, p. 12
Embedding Critical Thinking:Group Discussion of M-C Questions Model Student Discussion: Follow the Steps Carefully • Appoint a leader to guide/pace the group. • Share and compare your answers. Wrong answers are your greatest asset for discussion and learning. Don’t be shy! • Discuss, analyze, and debate specific questions with different answers. Determine group’s “best answer” for this question. • Defend all answers with support from the text or the question. • Together, determine all the best answers. (But also hold on to your minority views. You may be right!)
Sitting in the Student’s ChairAP Multiple-Choice Practice • Locate and complete multiple-choice questions: • “Advice to a Prophet” (Richard Wilbur), Workshop Handbook, p. 10 • “The Eolian Harp” (Coleridge), Workshop Handbook. P. 17 • DO NOT look up the answers Other Options: • “There Was a Boy” (Wordsworth) • “The Most of It” (Frost) • From Richard III, “It is the winter of our discontent…” • Maintain quiet as you work on questions. • Start another set, if you finish early. • Choose a reading you complete to discuss with a group.
Embedding Critical ThinkingThrough Group Discussion Model Student Discussion: Follow the Steps Carefully • Appoint a leader to guide/pace the group. • Share and compare your answers. Wrong answers are your greatest asset for discussion and learning. Don’t be shy! • Discuss, analyze, and debate specific questions with different answers. Determine group’s “best answer” for this question. • Defend all answers with support from the text or the question. • Together, determine all the best answers. (But also hold on to your minority views. You may be right!)
Multiple-Choice Answers • “Winter of our . . . • D • B • A • C • C • D • E • B • E • C • A • B • B • C “There Was a Boy” • C • A • B • D • B • D • A • E • A • C “The Most of It” • D • B • A • A • C • E • A • B
Analyze Your M-C Questions Group Analysis of Multiple-Choice Questions • What questions require students to know and apply the definition of a literary term? (List those terms.) • Identify the questions that require accurate close reading of a phrase or line? (How many?) • Identify the questions that require accurate interpretation of the whole text? (How many?) • Identify a specific reading strategy required by a particular question. (Discuss several. Make a list and prepare to explain these strategies.) • What do the questions reveal about multiple-choice testing techniques? (List several insights.)
Extend Discussion • Did the questions reveal new insights into the text? • What did you learn about close reading? • What did you learn about multiple-choice testing? • How can this exercise help your students?
Share Your Conclusions Multiple-Choice Practice • What are the essential insights you gained about • The importance of literary terms (list some) • Close reading skills (less some specific strategies) • Critical thinking skills • What do your insights imply about effective AP Literature instruction? • What are your ideas for using M-C practices in your AP course. • What skills are required for success?
Evaluate Your Group DiscussionsIndex Card • Rate: 1 (low) to 5 (high) • Comment • Focus: Did the group maintain a focus on the assigned task? • Pacing: Did your group progress at an effective pace, completing the task in a timely manner? • Content: Were the ideas and insights discussed informative and rewarding? (Report your best example)
Judging AP EssaysThe Reading/Writing Synergy Locate “Storm Warnings” (pp. 17-20) • What are the WHAT, HOW, and WHY of the prompt for this poem? • What main point must the student address? • How do CB Exam readers determine which essays are high, middle, and low? • What connection between reading and writing is revealed by this prompt and the sample responses?
Teaching to the Nines“The Great Scarf of Birds,” pp. 21-24 • Read the prompt and the poem. • Study the student essay, using the questions in italics to guide your thinking: • List 2-3 main points that best address both the WHAT and HOW of the question. • List 5 examples from the essay that support these points. What skills are required for a successful essay? What would your AP students learn from this assignment?
Judging AP EssaysSurvey 2010 Exam, CB Workshop Handbook, p. 75ff, Question 2 and/or 3 • Are AP prompts structured to reveal accurately a student’s skill as reader, writer, thinker? • Do you agree or disagree with the standards reflected in the high, middle, low rankings of these essays? • What did you learn about effective AP writing? • What did you learn about yourself, as a judge of AP student writers? • Go online (AP Central/Courses and Exams) for additional examples of AP exam questions & essays What skills are required for success?
Testing Your Alignment • Keep in mind all you have observed about effective student writing for AP Essays. • Read “Reunion,” pp. 25-26 • Review the Scoring Guide, p. 27. • Score the Sample Essays, pp. 28-32, using the Scoring Guide to help you determine your scores, 9-1.
“Reunion” Scores • #1 = 6 • #2 = 9 • #3 = 9 • #4 = 5 • #5 = 1 • #6 = 4
Topic 2: Teaching AP WritingA. AP Writing Standards What are the traits of effective AP writing? (See Notebook, p. 33) • Sentence Style • Organization • Quality of Thinking
Sentences • Economy (p.34)Sample essays: Auden’s “As I Walked Out One Evening” • Variety (p.36) • Practicing Sentence Patterns (37-38)
Organization(p. 39) • AP Impromptu Essays vs. Edited Essays • Guidelines for Impromptu Essays • Identify the WHAT and the HOW • Underline passages for examples • Identify a controlling idea; state it; keep it in mind and up front; use it to explain the WHY • Address the prompt throughout the essay • Decide on a specific principle of organization—the narrative sequence of the passage, the list of literary techniques to address, a combination.
Organization(p. 40) Guidelines for Edited Writing: Promote the Writing Process • Develop activities that require students to practice the whole writing process: prewriting, drafting, shaping, and revising • Keep in mind the importance of the revision process for improving writing • We don’t write; we only re-write • Plan so that students write more than you can possibly have time to read—make use of peer and self-assessment
Quality of Thinking (p. 41-42) • Analyze the prompt, locating the “how” and “what” • Read the poem, “The Groundhog” • Study the student response: • What makes the sentences effective? • What makes the organization effective? • Why and how does the essay exemplify a high quality of thinking?
Priorities in Writing Instruction, p. 43 • regular and frequent writing practice, • timed writings—opportunities to meet specific directives within the framework of a designated time, • challenging questions about their ideas and interpretations, • questions and suggestions to help them build valid and logical arguments, • feedback about general effectiveness and persuasiveness,
Priorities in Writing Instruction, p. 43 • advice about organization and restructuring, • suggestions for expanding and elaborating, • help in identifying awkward, unclear wording or a monotonous style, • help in identifying patterns of frequent errors in grammar or mechanics, • activities and directives to help them develop a critical eye about their own writing, and • guidance in learning to practice self-assessment. • Note SAS Curriculum Pathways resources, p. 43
Assessment of AP Writing (p. 44) • Holistic Scoring at AP Exam Readings • Student Skills for Success • Responses should • focus on the prompt. • reflect an accurate reading of the text. • Writing should • Be grammatically correct (a timeddraft). • Show effective use of subordination, economy, precision, and a fluent flow of thought. • be coherently organized and shaped for the prompt. • Overall response should be • Intellectually stimulating with significant insights into the contentliterary techniques, language resources, themes & purpose.
Holistic Assessment (p. 45) • What are the uses and advantages of holistic assessment? • Can students and teachers use a generic, holistic Scoring Guide? • How can holistic scores be translated into grades? • What does a Generic Scoring Guide look like? (p.46)
Sitting in the Reader’s Chair Pre-Exam Tips for Students . . . (pp. 47-49 From the Small to the Large Issues
Analytic Assessment • What does analytic assessment address? (p. 50) • What are its disadvantages and advantages? • When does teacher assessment become just editing? Is editing what teachers should do? • How can self-assessment improve student writing? (p. 51) Explore Topics for Analytic Assessment . . . a student/teacher tool (p. 52-54)
Conclusions What do AP Exams and Writing Standards imply about course content, activities, and atmosphere in Pre-AP and AP classes?
Looking ahead . . . Days 3 and 4: • Explore options, Agenda, Topic 7: Choose high interest topic from Open Choices, A or B • Explore options, Agenda, Topic 8: Choose specific Acts from Hamlet or whole play. Choose from other book-length works listed, or . . . Please suggest other options for study and discussion now! • Give me your choices on index cards at noon on Tuesday. I’ll arrange groups according to interest. Day 5: Volunteer to present Course Overview, Unit, Lesson, or an Activity. (See me Mon. or Tues.)
Conclusions Challenge . . . Write a response to 2011 Exam, Question 1, 2, or 3 for Friday (Prompts, p. 10.) Questions . . . Exploration www.sascurriculumpathwaysUserName: SASCP11 Password: APSummer Collaboration