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Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ) Composition and Trace Gas Measurements in the Yangtze Delta Region In memoriam Dr. Glen Cass. K. Baumann, M.H. Bergin, W.L. Chameides, F. Ift, C.S. Kiang, J.Z. Zhao School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

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Fine Particle (PM2.5) Composition and Trace Gas Measurements in the Yangtze Delta RegionIn memoriam Dr. Glen Cass

K. Baumann, M.H. Bergin, W.L. Chameides, F. Ift, C.S. Kiang, J.Z. Zhao

School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

K.S. Shao, X.Y. Tang, M.L. Wang, L.M. Zeng

Center for Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing

  • Locations, tools, and data quality
  • Meteorological and trace gas characteristics at SheShan
  • Spatial trends in PM2.5 mass and composition
  • Seasonal comparison based on ChangShu data
continuous trace gas measurements
Continuous Trace Gas Measurements

SheShan Nov-99 intensive NO/NOy

Yangtse network station set-up

The inlet box, mounted on the roof of the SheShan observatory, allowed standard addition of NO, and NO2 (via GPT) calibration gases. A single chemiluminescence detector was utilized, alternating between NO and NOy measure modes every 2 min with instrument zeroes overlapping every 15 min. The flow controller stream selector valve assembly was housed inside resulting in a sample residence time of ~7 s. The NOy converter is a 35 cm long, 0.48 cm ID MoO tube, temperature controlled at 330 ±2 oC. All air intake surfaces were Teflon coated and T-controlled at 40 oC.

trace gas data quality
Trace Gas Data Quality

Note: values for NO/NOy are from GIT’s research grade analyzer, and

uncertainty in NOy arises from MoO conversion efficiency determined for NO2

Q(NO2) = 67 ±14 %.

average pm 2 5 and pm 10 concentrations for sheshan november 99
Average PM2.5 and PM10 Concentrationsfor SheShan November 99

± 1-sigma

Major ions represented mainly in fine fraction; bulk of sodium and calcium in coarse fraction

sheshan november 99 correlations with wind wind roses
SheShan November 99Correlations with Wind, Wind Roses

NOy indicative of influence from mobile sources, i.e.

the Shanghai-Hangzhou Expressway to S and E,

and metropolitan Shanghai to NE

SO2 points to possible point sources to W and NE

sheshan pm 2 5 and met data november 99
SheShan PM2.5 and Met. Data November 99
  • Change in synoptic conditions on 11/14 and 11/23 (cold fronts)
  • accompanied by sharp drops in PM2.5 and O3, subsequent recovery
  • High mass on 11/24 due to agricultural burning in close vicinity to the site
regional comparison of pm 2 5 composition
Regional Comparison of PM2.5 Composition
  • Lowest levels at LinAn background station,
  • but temporal fluctuations similar to ChangShu
  • Regional influence by cold front passages (11/14 and 11/23) noticeable at both sites
  • Signatures of sporadic local influences on top of regional trend
average mass composition
Average Mass Composition

No significant regional differences in November 99,

but noticeable seasonal differences at ChangShu

seasonal regional averages
Seasonal/Regional Averages
  • Seasonal differences in K+ due to post-harvest biomass burning activities in November
  • ChangShu highest Na+, Cl-, suggesting maritime influence
  • Aerosol slightly acidic regionally; but lower variability at LinAn
comparison with seasonal regional averages at u s sites
Comparison with Seasonal/Regional Averages at U.S. Sites

ATL: Atlanta, GA – urban

HV: H’ville, TN – suburban

DX: Dickson, TN - rural

  • Significantly lower [PM2.5] at U.S. sites, even during
  • summer
  • [O3] comparable
  • in fall, much higher
  • in summer, esp.
  • in urban Atlanta
  • Slightly alkaline aerosol
  • in fall and winter,
  • as opposed to Yangtze sites,
  • probably due to different
  • emission patterns
  • NH4+, SO42-, NO3-, and oxalate predominantly in fine mode (PM2.5); alkaline, alkaline earth cations, Cl- and acetate represented indifferently between fine and coarse (PM10) modes
  • Despite low photochemical activity during November period, O3 buildup along with PM2.5 concentrations after frontal passage
  • During this buildup period, close correlation of gas phase SO2 and particle phase SO42- observed
  • Apparent influence from roadways and point sources at SheShan indicated by NOy and SO2
  • Average PM2.5 mass concentration levels highest at ChangShu, possibly due to close vicinity of traffic sources; lowest in LinAn (background site)
  • No regional differences in fine particle composition, but noticeable seasonal differences, especially with respect to carbonaceous species and sulfate
  • Seasonal differences most noticeable in K+ indicating influence of post-harvest burning in November
  • Significantly (~3x) lower PM2.5 in SE-US with tendency to slightly alcalinic aerosol in fall and winter compared to slightly acidic conditions in the Yangtze Delta region
  • Prof. Du HuiFang, Fudan University, ShangHai, for invaluable help preparing and organizing the November intensive at SheShan
  • Ms. Wu LiBo, Fudan University, ShangHai, for indispensable help and support at the SheShan site
  • Prof. Ding Guoan, CAMS Beijing, for patient help clearing research equipment with Chinese customs
  • The various local site operators at ChangShu, LinAn and SheShan for their diligence and willingness to help us out with anything, anytime!!
sheshan november 99 diurnal trends related to air mass transport
SheShan November 99Diurnal Trends Related to Air Mass Transport

Symbol code:

Size=WS / color=WD

  • Winds driven by synoptic forces rather than convective (no diurnal trend)
  • Strong winds carry background [O3] ~30-40 ppbv
  • NO peaks in morning and high levels carried into evening
  • Weak photochemistry indicated by O3 and NO/NOy