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Zero-voltage transition converters The phase-shifted full bridge converter

Zero-voltage transition converters The phase-shifted full bridge converter

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Zero-voltage transition converters The phase-shifted full bridge converter

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  1. Zero-voltage transition convertersThe phase-shifted full bridge converter Buck-derived full-bridge converter Zero-voltage switching of each half-bridge section Each half-bridge produces a square wave voltage. Phase-shifted control of converter output A popular converter for server front-end power systems Efficiencies of 90% to 95% regularly attained Controller chips available

  2. Issues with this converter It’s a good converter for many applications requiring isolation. But… • Secondary-side diodes operate with zero-current switching. They require snubbing or other protection to avoid failure associated with avalanche breakdown • The resonant transitions reduce the effective duty cycle and conversion ratio. To compensate, the transformer turns ratio must be increased, leading to increased reflected load current in the primary-side elements • During the D’Ts interval when both output diodes conduct, inductor Lc stores energy (needed for ZVS to initiate the next DTs interval) and its current circulates around the primary-side elements—causing conduction loss

  3. Result of analysisBasic configuration: full bridge ZVT

  4. Actual waveforms, including resonant transitions

  5. Issues with this converter It’s a good converter for many applications requiring isolation. But… • Secondary-side diodes operate with zero-current switching. They require snubbing or other protection to avoid failure associated with avalanche breakdown • The resonant transitions reduce the effective duty cycle and conversion ratio. To compensate, the transformer turns ratio must be increased, leading to increased reflected load current in the primary-side elements • During the D’Ts interval when both output diodes conduct, inductor Lc stores energy (needed for ZVS to initiate the next DTs interval) and its current circulates around the primary-side elements—causing conduction loss

  6. Diode switching analysis

  7. Diode commutation: intervals 3 and 4

  8. Waveforms: ZCS of D6

  9. Intervals 3, 3', and 4'

  10. Simplification of circuit model during 4'

  11. Simplification of circuit model during 4'

  12. State plane diagram of ringing during 4'

  13. Waveforms: ZCS of D6

  14. Approaches to snub the diode ringing(a) conventional diode snubber

  15. Approaches to snub the diode ringing(b) conventional passive voltage-clamp snubber

  16. Approaches to snub the diode ringing(c) simplify to one passive voltage-clamp snubber

  17. Approaches to snub the diode ringing(d) improvement of efficiency in voltage-clamp snubber

  18. Approaches to snub the diode ringing(e) active clamp lossless snubber

  19. Approaches to snub the diode ringing(f) primary-side lossless voltage clamp

  20. PFC DC-DC Load Load Load Another application of the ZVT: DC Transformer Operate at a fixed conversion ratio with high duty cycle, leading to high efficiency—avoids the problems of circulating currents Use other elements in the system to regulate voltage 5 V 1 V 350 V ZVT AC line DC-DC isolation DC-DC

  21. Active clamp circuits • Can be viewed as a lossless voltage-clamp snubber that employs a current-bidirectional switch • See Vinciarelli patent (1982) for use in forward converter • Related to other half-bridge ZVS circuits • Can be added to the transistor in any PWM converter • Not only adds ZVS to forward converter, but also resets transformer better, leading to better transistor utilization than conventional reset circuit

  22. The conventional forward converter • Max vds = 2Vg + ringing • Limited to D < 0.5 • On-state transistor current is P/DVg • Magnetizing current must operate in DCM • Peak transistor voltage occurs during transformer reset • Could reset the transformer with less voltage if interval 3 were reduced

  23. The active-clamp forward converter • Better transistor/transformer utilization • ZVS • Not limited to D < 0.5 Transistors are driven in usual half-bridge manner:

  24. Approximate analysis:ignore resonant transitions, dead times, and resonant elements

  25. Charge balance Vb can be viewed as a flyback converter output. By use of a current-bidirectional switch, there is no DCM, and LM operates in CCM.

  26. Peak transistor voltage Max vds = Vg + Vb = Vg /D’ which is less than the conventional value of 2 Vg when D > 0.5 This can be used to considerable advantage in practical applications where there is a specified range of Vg

  27. Design example • 270 V ≤ Vg ≤ 350 V • max Pload = P = 200 W • Compare designs using conventional 1:1 reset winding and using active clamp circuit

  28. Conventional case Peak vds = 2Vg + ringing = 700 V + ringing Let’s let max D = 0.5 (at Vg = 270 V), which is optimistic Then min D (at Vg = 350 V) is(0.5)(270)/(350) = 0.3857 The on-state transistor current, neglecting ripple, is given by ig  = DnI = Did-on with P = 200 W = Vg  ig  = DVg id-on So id-on = P/DVg = (200W) / (0.5)(270 V) = 1.5 A

  29. Active clamp case:scenario #1 • Suppose we choose the same turns ratio as in the conventional design. Then the converter operates with the same range of duty cycles, and the on-state transistor current is the same. But the transistor voltage is equal to Vg /D’, and is reduced: • At Vg = 270 V: D = 0.5 peak vds = 540 V • At Vg = 350 V: D = 0.3857 peak vds = 570 V • which is considerably less than 700 V

  30. Active clamp case:scenario #2 • Suppose we operate at a higher duty cycle, say, D = 0.5 at Vg = 350 V. Then the transistor voltage is equal to Vg /D’, and is similar to the conventional design under worst-case conditions: • At Vg = 270 V: D = 0.648 peak vds = 767 V • At Vg = 350 V: D = 0.5 peak vds = 700 V • But we can use a lower turns ratio that leads to lower reflected current in Q1: • id-on = P/DVg = (200W) / (0.5)(350 V) = 1.15 A