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### SPSS WORKSHOP

### Workshop IIData Analyses with SPSS

### Thanks for having us as your guests

### Thanks for having us

Please Log onto Your Computer Station

User Name: type in your user ID

Password: type in your password

Domain: ASUAD

If you have trouble signing in:

Then try signing in with westguest account

User Name: westguest

Password: asuwest

Domain: (this computer)

Sometime after today’s class, please go to Technopolis (basement of library) to get your user ID fixed.

Laptops

- You can move the laptop to where ever you want to sit.
- If the laptop gives you a warning that the battery is running low, we have extra laptops you can switch with.
- If the laptops are not frequently used then they will go to sleep. So please move your mouse every few minutes.
- If the laptops happen to fall asleep (or shut down),
- please push the power button, which is located at top left hand corner of your keyboard.
- Then you will have to retype in the password.
- There is a sign in sheet going around the room for the laptops. Each lap top has a unique identification number located behind the screen. Please put your name next to the laptop you are using

Roger Berger

Mathematical Sciences &

Applied Computing Department

Rico Rivera

Heather Ohton

Tommy Aguila

Christopher Zambakari

Statistics Laboratory

http://www.west.asu.edu/StatLab

Workshop II: Overview (p. 1)

- Function of Stat Lab
- Review of basic function of SPSS Data Editor
- Complete survey and enter data
- Brief review of how variables were edited in “variable view”
- Transforming variables in SPSS
- Create composite scores
- Reverse scoring
- Syntax
- Keeping track of data manipulation and analyses
- Syntax window
- Repeat of descriptive statistics
- Level of measurement
- Summarizing distributions of variables
- Central tendency and variability (dispersion)
- Relational and inferential statistics
- Relationships: cross tabulations and relationships
- Inferential statistics (t-tests)
- Stat Lab resources
- Online resources: survey design
- Our reference library

Open up your internet Explorer

http://www.west.asu.edu/StatLab

- Click on Workshops
- Click on Data used for SPSS Workshops
- Click on Fin_Health_SWG693
- Please save it in your Desktop.
- Close the internet browser.

SPSS Accessibility (p. 3)

- Network access
- Technopolis (basement of library)
- Desktop (hard drive) installed
- Computer Classrooms
- Stat Lab
- Software versions can be purchased at the Bookstore
- Student Edition: (SE) (has limitations). ~80.00
- Grad Pak: (has much more features)
- ~215.00
- only graduate students can get it
- Can download price list from: http://bookstore.asu.edu/computers/index.php

Accessing the Statistic Laboratory

- Location: CLCC 107
- Phone: (602) 543-6117
- Website: http://www.west.asu.edu/StatLab
- Operating hours: See website
- When using the lab, please sign in at the front counter

Support for Statistics (p. 4)

- Function of Stat Lab (also pp. 5-7)
- The Stat Lab staff assists students with aspects of statistical software.
- The Stat Lab is not set up to provide one-on-one tutorial service for students on a regular basis.
- However, we have and frequently do answer general statistic questions.
- Statistics Tutoring
- Learning Enhancement Center
- TRiO (SSS) program

Please fill out the survey (Remove the last page of your handout)

- Response
- Strongly Disagree
- Disagree
- Agree
- Strongly Agree
- Sex
- Male
- Female
- Age

- Response
- Strongly Disagree = 1
- Disagree = 2
- Agree = 3
- Strongly Agree = 4
- Sex
- Male = 1
- Female = 2
- Age

Actual age in years

- Having ID column will help you keep track of cases
- What do the 1st five questions measure?
- What do the 2nd five questions measure?

Please launch SPSSthen Turn to Page 10 of Handout

- Menu Bar
- Data & Transform are used to manipulate the data in data editor (i.e., spread sheet)
- Analyze and Graphs are used to create output
- Tabs (bottom left hand corner of data editor)
- Data View (top panel)
- Columns: Variables (e.g., questions on survey)
- Rows: Cases (e.g., survey)
- Variable View (bottom panel)
- How we edit the variables
- Give variables their names, labels, etc

Variable View

- Click on Variable View
- Tab (located lower left hand corner)
- Pages 12 – 13 of your handout
- Variable Name
- Numeric
- Width
- Decimal
- Variable Label
- Value Label
- Missing
- Column
- Align
- Measure

Variable View

- Variable View
- Tab (located lower left hand corner)
- Pages 12 – 13 of your handout
- Variable Name
- Numeric
- Width
- Decimal
- Variable Label
- Value Label
- Missing
- Column
- Align
- Measure

Open a new data file

- Now we are going to open up a data set.
- File > open > Data
- Navigate to your desktop
- Open up the data file that you downloaded from our website.

Overview of Next Section of Workshop

- Transforming Variables
- Syntax File
- Descriptive Statistics
- Central Tendency
- Dispersion (Variability)
- Presentation of Data: tables & figures
- Making inferences to a Population
- Relationships and Statistical Tests
- Cross-tabulations and Chi Square
- Correlations
- Independent Sample t-test
- Other Useful information in packet

Transforming Variable (p 14)

- Recode
- Data may be need to be recoded for a variety of reasons
- Examples
- Common for reversing the scales
- Converting a continuous variable into discrete ordinal variable
- Transform > Recode > Into Different Variables
- Computing a New Variable
- Can create new variables that may be a function of pre-existing variables
- Transform > Compute

Financial Stability Composite Scale

- Person A has extremely “low” financial Stability.
- How you think he would answer questions f01 through f05?
- SD A D SA?
- However, person B owns a very profitable business.
- How do you think she would answer items f01 through f05 ?
- SD A D SA?

Health Service Accessibility Composite Scale

- What if person B also has high Health Service Accessibility ?
- She has great medical benefits and can get free services from her sister’s medical practice
- How do you think she would answer the Access to Health Service questions?

Look at the SPSS in data view

- Why is the variable called “revh10”?
- Reverse of h10
- "cannot get the medicines I need" with scoring reversed.
- What is the variable “finance”?
- Finance Composite: f01+f02+f03+f04+f05
- Construct: “Financial Stability”
- What is the variable “health”?
- Heath Composite: h06 + h07 + h08 + h09 + revh10
- Construct: “Accessibility to Health Services”

Lets Create a Composite Score

- Make sure that you are in “data view” tab
- Click on Transform > Compute

Overview Analyzing Data & Creating Graphs

- Level of Measurement
- Descriptive Analysis
- Presentation of Data
- Central Tendency & Variability

What are the Levels of Measurement? (p. 16)

Ratio

(e.g.., sex, ethnicity, agency, location):

- Different Categories
- numerical values just "name" the attribute uniquely
- NOT Rankable
- We don't assume that higher values mean "more" of something and lower numbers signify "less".

(e.g., income, weights, volumes, capacities, rates):

- Different categories
- Rankable categories
- Constant equal-sized Intervals
- Absolute Zero (physical significance) (e.g., temperature in Kelvin, time)
- construct a meaningful fraction (or ratio) with a ratio variable

Interval

(temperature on Celsius and Fahrenheit):

- Different categories
- Rankable categories
- Constant equal-sized Intervals
- can be expressed numerically
- the distance between attributes does have meaning

Ordinal

(e.g.., education attainment, class status):

- Different Categories
- Categories are rankable: (attributes can be rank-ordered)
- Intervals are NOT equal-sized
- But is distance from 0 to 1 same as 3 to 4?
- Distances between attributes do not have any meaning.
- We don't assume the value of 2 means that sophomores are twice something than freshman are.

Nominal

Descriptive Statistics

- Presentation of entire distribution
- Frequency Distribution: organized tabulation of the number (or percentage) of individuals in each category on the scale of measurement
- Can be presented in a table or in a graph
- Measures of Central Tendency
- Identifies a single score that represents an entire data set
- Best example of average or most typical score
- Measures of Variability (Dispersion)
- Provides a description of how spread out the scores are in a distribution
- Provides a measure of how accurately a single score selected from a distribution represents the entire set

Back to SPSS

- Create table frequency & a chart
- Create measures of central tendency
- Create measures of dispersion

How can we summarize the distribution of the below variable?

Gender

- Male
- Female

What is the level of measurement?

(see page 16, 1st slide)

Nominal

Should we use a bar graph or a histogram?

(see page 16, 2nd slide)

Bar Graph

Presentation of an Nominal Variable

- Click Analyze > click Descriptive Statistics > then click Frequencies.
- You should see a dialog box called Frequencies.
- On the left side you should see a list of variables and on the right you should see a Variable(s) box.
- In the variable list (left side) look for a variable either called “Gender” or sex.
- Select this variable by clicking on it, then click ►to place the variable in the Variable(s) box.
- Make sure that there is a check marknext to Display frequency tables.
- Click Charts.
- You will see a dialog box called Frequencies: Charts
- Click Bar Charts. Click Continue.
- Click OK.

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Gender (N=96)*

*Missing Cases = 2

We want to know the central tendency for the below variables. (p 18)

- Age of respondent

18 – 89. Actual age in years

What is the level of measurement?

Which measure of central tendency should we use?

(see page 16, 3rd slide)

Central Tendency & Variability for Interval & Ratio Variable

- Click Analyze > click Descriptive Statistics > then click Descriptive.
- You will see a dialog box called Descriptives.
- Select the variable
- one is called “AGE”.
- Click Options. You will see a dialog box called Descriptives: Options
- By default Mean,Std Deviation, Minimum, & Maximum should be selected
- click Continue.
- Click OK.

Mean Comparisons

- Lets say we want to see if males and females differ in their financial stability.
- In SPSS we can compare the mean financial stability between gender categories

Mean Comparison

- The left side contains the list of variables from the data set.
- You can scroll down to find the two variables:
- Sex (gender) and Financial Stability.
- After choosing a variable you can move it into one of the boxes on the right.
- Dependent List:
- Independent List
- Which variable is the dependent variable? Sex or Financial Stability?
- Which variable is the independent variable?

Summary of what we have discussed.

- Presentation of the variable distributions
- Central tendency
- Variability (dispersion)
- Comparing means across groups

Statistical Significance

- Statistical Significance (probability)
- Probability is used to predict what kind of samples are likely to be obtained from a population.
- Probability establishes a connection between populations and samples
- Relying on this connection, inferences of populations can based on sample statistics

Research Question

- Actual research is conducted using a sample
- Hypothesis test: a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a hypothesis about a population parameter.
- Hypotheses are stated in terms of population parameters
- Research Hypotheses, for example,
- There is a relationship between age & financial stability.
- There is an financial differences between males and females (i.e., There is an gender effect on financial stability)
- There is a change or a difference between pre and post test scores

Research Questions & the Applicable Statistical Procedures

- Relationships
- Chi-square
- Correlation
- Regression
- Differences between 2 sample means
- Independent samples
- Independent t-test
- Dependent samples
- Paired-sample t-test
- Differences among 2 or more independent sample means
- Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

Relationship

- Science involves a search for relationships between variables. For example, is there is a relationship between the amount of rainfall and crop growth?
- Sometimes, it is reasonable to expect a consistent, orderly relation between two variables: As X changes, Y also changes in a predictable way.

Linear Relationships with SPSS

- Two options
- Regression Analysis

Analyze > Regression > Linear …

- Correlation Coefficient (simpler)

Analyze > Correlate > Bivariate …

- Scatter Plot

Graphs > Scatter > Simple ...

Helpful Pages in Your Packet

- APA Outline of Empirical Research Paper(pp 5-7)
- SPSS Statistics Cheat Sheet (pp 23-24)
- Printing Output (p26):
- Print Preview
- You can print only part of the output, by first selecting (single clicking) a particular output
- Sometimes you may want to set up the page as landscape before printing
- AFS network Space (p 27)
- Backing up your files to your server space via internet

Stat Lab Resources

- 12 PC computers, printer (free printing), and copier (limited use)
- Office supplies (stapler, 3-hole puncher, paper clips)
- Reference library (books can not leave the Stat Lab):
- Introductory text books on Statistics & Research Methods
- Publication manual of the American Psychological Association
- Presenting your findings: a practical guide for creating tables
- Displaying your findings: a practical guide for creating figures, posters, and presentations
- Using SPSS for Windows & Macintosh: analyzing & understanding data analyses (helpful in interpreting the results and writing it in APA format)

Review of Workshop

- Overview of Research Process
- Introduction to SPSS
- Input & importing raw data
- Editing raw data
- Transforming: reversing items and creating composite scores
- Analyzing Data & Create Graphs with SPSS
- Level of Measurement & Descriptive Statistics
- Central Tendency
- Dispersion
- Presentation of Data: tables & figures
- Comparing Means across groups (e.g., gender)
- Correlations

We have to justify the Stat Lab conducting SPSS workshops.

Could you please fill out the “SPSS workshop Evaluation” at last page of the packet.

If would please write comments about

what you like most of the workshop,

what you have learned about the workshop,

how we may be able to improve it.

We will greatly appreciate it.

Thank You,

Do keep the “Financial and Health Attitude Survey” you filled out.

Please close SPSS & log off your laptop. If the laptop logged you off or automatically shut off, please turn back on and put in your password so that the computer can be properly shutdown.

However, please turn in the “SPSS Workshop Evaluation 2.” After you have completed the survey please come up and leave the survey by the front table or desk.

Your professor may still need to continue with class, so please don’t leave yet.

Please come and visit the Stat Lab (CLCC 107).

Have a good day.

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