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Metabolism. Chapter 7. Metabolism:. Metabolism: refers to the entire network of chemical processes involved in maintaining life. Energy metabolism: the ways that the body obtains and spends energy from food.

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metabolism

Metabolism

Chapter 7

Metabolism: FON 241; L. Zienkewicz

metabolism2
Metabolism:
  • Metabolism: refers to the entire network of chemical processes involved in maintaining life.
  • Energy metabolism: the ways that the body obtains and spends energy from food.

Metabolism: FON 241; L. Zienkewicz

slide3
Anabolism:The building of compounds from small molecules into larger ones. Energy is used for this process to take place.
  • Catabolism:The breakdown of molecules into smaller units. Energy is releasedin this process.
    • Ex: Glucose catabolism results in the release of CO2 and H2O

Metabolism: FON 241; L. Zienkewicz

atp adenosine triphosphate
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate):
  • The main energy source of cells.
  • Used for muscular contractions, enzyme activity, etc.
  • Catabolism results in the production of many ATP molecules: energy.
  • Used by the body when energy is needed.
  • Hydrolysis breaks the bonds in ATP, thus releasing energy.

Metabolism: FON 241; L. Zienkewicz

metabolic efficiency
Metabolic Efficiency:
  • Food energy is converted to ATP with approximately 50% efficiency.
  • The other 50% is released as heat.
  • When ATP is needed for energy, ~50% are used.
  • Overall: 25% of food becomes energy

75% is released as heat.

Metabolism: FON 241; L. Zienkewicz

the cell
The Cell:

Q: Approximately how many cells does

the human body contain?

A: 1x1014 cells or

100,000,000,000,000. (100 trillion cells)

Metabolism: FON 241; L. Zienkewicz

the cell7
The Cell:
  • The site for metabolic activity.
  • Liver cells are the most metabolically active.

Metabolism: FON 241; L. Zienkewicz

how is energy produced
How is energy produced?

Three stages:

1. Proteins, Carbohydrates and Fats are broken down during digestion and absorption into smaller units: AA’s monosaccharides and fatty acids.

2. These smaller compounds are further broken down into 2-carbon compounds.

3. Compounds are degraded into CO2 and H20.

Metabolism: FON 241; L. Zienkewicz

helpers in reactions
Helpers in reactions:
  • Enzymes: proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process; protein catalysts.
  • Coenzymes: assist enzymes in their activities.

Metabolism: FON 241; L. Zienkewicz

breakdown of nutrients for energy
Breakdown of nutrients for energy:
  • Glucose breakdown
  • Glycerol and Fatty Acid breakdown
  • Amino Acid breakdown

Fats

Energy

Carbohydrates

Common Pathway

Protein

Metabolism: FON 241; L. Zienkewicz

1 glucose breakdown
1. Glucose breakdown

Glycolysis: A reaction in which glucose is degraded to pyruvate; net profit: 2 ATP. An anaerobic pathway.

Glucose

Pyruvate

Lactic Acid Acetyl CoA

2 ATP

Less oxygen available

Oxygen available

Metabolism: FON 241; L. Zienkewicz

2 glycerol and fatty acid breakdown
2. Glycerol and Fatty Acid breakdown

Triglycerides are broken into:Glycerol and Fatty Acids (lipolysis).

Glucose

Glycerol

Pyruvate

Fatty acids

Acetyl CoA

Metabolism: FON 241; L. Zienkewicz

3 amino acid breakdown
3. Amino Acid breakdown

Glucose

Amino Acids

Pyruvate

Amino Acids

Acetyl CoA

Amino Acids

TCA Cycle

Metabolism: FON 241; L. Zienkewicz

3 amino acid breakdown cont
3. Amino Acid breakdown (cont.)
  • Deamination: AA Keto acid and Ammonia
  • Transamination
  • Ammonia Urea in the Liver
  • Urea excreted via the kidneys
  • Water needed for urea excretion

Metabolism: FON 241; L. Zienkewicz

the tca cycle
The TCA Cycle:
  • Functions to convert Acetyl CoA to CO2 and to produce energy.
  • Oxaloacetate combines with Acetyl CoA to begin the cycle.
  • The result: produces potential ATP (energy).

Metabolism: FON 241; L. Zienkewicz

the electron transport chain
The Electron Transport Chain:
  • The primary site for ATP (energy) synthesis.
  • Uses Oxygen to convert products of the TCA cycle into energy.

Metabolism: FON 241; L. Zienkewicz

why is fat higher in energy
Why is fat higher in energy?
  • Fat’s carbon-hydrogen bonds can be easily oxidized, yielding energy (ATP).
  • 1 glucose molecule yields 38 ATP when oxidized.
  • 1 fatty-acid (16-C) will yield 129 ATP when oxidized.

Metabolism: FON 241; L. Zienkewicz

weight maintenance
Weight Maintenance:
  • Dietary fat can be easily transformed into body fat.
  • Surplus protein leads to:

1. Replacing daily losses.

2. Increased protein oxidation (energy).

3. Storage as fat.

  • Surplus carbohydrate leads to:

1. Storage as glycogen.

2. Increased CHO oxidation (variable w/ diet).

3. Storage as fat.

Metabolism: FON 241; L. Zienkewicz

the body s 1 priority
The body’s #1 priority:
  • Meet its energy needs.

Metabolism: FON 241; L. Zienkewicz