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Metabolism. Catabolism-Glycolysis (Kreb Cycle) Anabolism-Photosynthesis. Metabolism. Sum of all chemical reactions Catabolism Exergonic reaction Most of energy in ATP –last phosphate bond. Metabolism. Anabolism Consume more energy than produce Use ATP for energy. Enzymes.

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metabolism

Metabolism

Catabolism-Glycolysis (Kreb Cycle)

Anabolism-Photosynthesis

metabolism2
Metabolism
  • Sum of all chemical reactions
  • Catabolism
    • Exergonic reaction
    • Most of energy in ATP –last phosphate bond
metabolism3
Metabolism
  • Anabolism
    • Consume more energy than produce
    • Use ATP for energy
enzymes
Enzymes
  • Biological catalysts
  • Energy of activation
  • Specificity
  • Primary structure
  • Secondary structure
  • Tertiary structure
  • Quaternary structure
components of enzymes
Components of Enzymes
  • Apoenzyme-protein only
  • Cofactor-nonprotein
    • Trace elements
  • Coenzyme-organic cofactor
    • Carriers of electrons etc
    • NAD+
enzyme substrate complex
Enzyme-substrate Complex
  • Active site on enzyme
  • Transformation in substrate
  • Products released
  • Enzyme orients substrate
  • Lowers energy of activation
denaturation
Denaturation
  • Structure of enzyme is disrupted
  • No longer active
  • Temperature
  • pH
  • Substrate concentration
    • Enzyme becomes saturated
inhibitors
Inhibitors
  • Competitive inhibitors
  • Noncompetitive inhibitors
    • Allosteric site
feedback inhibition
Feedback Inhibition
  • End product inhibition
  • Series of enzymes –end product
energy production
Energy Production
  • Oxidation-reduction reactions
  • Generation of ATP
    • Phosphorylation
    • Used for metabolism, binary fission, endospore formation movement
types of phosphorylation
Types of Phosphorylation
  • Substrate level
  • Oxidative phosphorylation
  • Photophosphorylation
carbohydrate metabolism
Carbohydrate Metabolism
  • Glucose as an example
  • Two energy processes
    • Cellular respiration
    • Fermentation
    • Glycolysis
  • Respiration-Krebs cycle & electron transport chain
glucose metabolism
Glucose Metabolism

C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 38 ADP +38 P

6CO2 + 6H2O + 38 ATP

glycolysis
Glycolysis
  • Summary of glycolysis
  • 2 molecules of pyruvate (3 C)
  • Production of 2 NADH & 2H+
  • Net of 2 ATP
  • Substrate phosphorylation
  • Takes place in cytosol of bacteria & eukaryotes
  • No oxygen is required
  • Alternate pathways
cellular respiration
Cellular Respiration
  • Cellular respiration
    • Final electron acceptor is inorganic molecule
  • Two types based on final electron acceptor
aerobic respiration
Aerobic Respiration
  • Krebs cycle
  • Mitochondria of eukaryotes-matrix
  • Cytosol in prokaryotes
  • Intermediary step- production of acetyl CoA
    • 2 CO2 & 2 NADH
aerobic respiration17
Aerobic Respiration
  • Acetyl Co enters Krebs cycle
  • 4 carbons of glucose released as CO2
  • 6 NADH & 2 FADH2 produced
  • 2 ATP by substrate phosphorylation
electron transport chain
Electron Transport Chain
  • Series of redox reactions
  • Stepwise release of energy
  • Oxygen final acceptor of electrons
  • Inner membrane of mitochondria in eukaryotes
  • Foldings of plasma membrane or thylakoid infoldings( photosynthesis)
  • Occurs only in intact membranes
carrier molecules
Carrier Molecules
  • Some carry both electrons & protons (H+)
  • Cytochromes transfer electrons only
  • Oxygen is last link of chain
chemiosmosis
Chemiosmosis
  • ATP generation
  • Proton pumps
  • Proton motive force
  • Protein channels with ATP synthases
atp production
ATP Production
  • Protons release energy as rush through pore
  • ATP produced via oxidative phosphorylation
  • Damage to membrane ceases proton movement
anaerobic respiration
Anaerobic Respiration
  • Final electron acceptor is an inorganic molecule other than oxygen
  • Some use NO3 - ,SO42-
  • Important in nitrogen and sulfur cycles
  • ATP varies, less than 38
  • Only part of Krebs cycle & ETC used
fermentation
Fermentation
  • Pyruvate converted to organic product
  • NAD+ regenerated
  • Doesn’t require oxygen
  • Does not use Krebs cycle or ETC
    • Shut down
  • Organic molecule is final electron acceptor
  • Produces 2 ATP max
photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
  • Conversion of light energy into chemical energy
  • Anabolism (carbon fixation)-produce sugars from CO2
  • Two stages
overall reaction
Overall Reaction

6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP

C6H12O6 + 6O2 + ADP + P

light reactions
Light Reactions
  • Photophosphorylation-production of ATP
    • Only in photosynthetic cells
  • Light energy (electromagnetic radiation) absorbed by chlorophylls
    • Chlorophyll a
    • Located in membranous thylakoids of chloroplasts-plants & algae
    • Infoldings of plasma membrane of cyanobacteria
light reactions27
Light Reactions
  • Electrons flow through ETC
  • Electron carrier is NADP+
  • ATP produced by chemiosmosis
noncyclic photophosphorylation
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
  • Plants, algae, cyanobacteria
  • 2 photosystems
  • Produce both ATP via chemiosmosis
  • Produce NADPH
    • Used to reduce CO2 in dark reactions
    • Able to produce sugars
summary
Summary
  • ATP produced by chemiosmosis
    • Uses energy released in ETC
  • Oxygen produced from splitting of water
    • H2O→ 2H+ +2 e + O
    • Replace electrons lost from chlorophyll
  • NADPH produced in second photosystem
dark reactions
Dark Reactions
  • Calvin-Benson Cycle
  • Requires no light
  • Uses energy from ATP (light reactions) to reduce CO2 to sugars
  • Carbon fixation
summary31
Summary
  • Light H20 CO2

Calvin Cycle

Photosystems & ETC

Chlorophyll a

Chemiosmosis

NADP+

ADP+ P

ATP

NADPH

Cellular respiration

Organic cpds

sugars

O2