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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN POLAND WITH THE ASPECT TO THE HEALTH PROTECTION AND FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY . Katarzyna Połtowicz Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków. Structure of farmland utilisation in Poland. %.

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livestock production in poland with the aspect to the health protection and food quality and safety

LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN POLAND WITH THE ASPECT TO THE HEALTH PROTECTION AND FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY

Katarzyna Połtowicz

Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding,

National Research Institute of Animal Production,

32-083 Balice n. Kraków

structure of individual farms according to uaa size in 1995 and 2004
Structure of individual farms according to UAA size in 1995 and 2004

Total number of farms

1995 – 2047600

2004 - 1851200

UAA size of farms (’000 ha)

1995 – 13819,9

2004 – 13930,4

1995

2004

Source: Agriculture 2004, GUS, Warsaw 2005

average yield of beef and pork kg and annual milk yeald per cow l in poland and eu countries
Average yield of beef and pork (kg) and annual milk yeald per cow (l) in Poland and EU countries
slide8

The organization of farm animal breeding and reproduction in Poland

  • Act of 20 August 1997 regulates matters related to:
  • farm animal breeding and reproduction,
  • conservation of genetic resources,
  • evaluation of productive and breeding value,
  • maintenance of herd-books and breeding records,
  • supervision of farm animal breeding and reproduction,
  • zootechnical supervision of trade.
slide9

Herd-book keeping

  • separately for breeds, lines or varieties within lines or sexes of:
  • horses,
  • cattle,
  • pigs,
  • sheep,
  • goats,
  • poultry species,
  • fur animal species
  • bee lines.
slide10

Dairy cattle breeding programmes

  • use of cows with the best genetic makeup as mothers of bulls
  • very good conformation
  • tuberculosis-, leukemia- and brucellosis-free herds,
  • widespread use of artificial insemination
  • development of dairy recording.
slide11

Bulls are tested at the end of rearing

  • and after selection combined with registration
  • in the herd-book.
  • In the case of progeny-tested dairy bulls, test inseminations of cows and heifers are carried out in recorded herds.
  • In the case of beef bulls, cows and heifers inseminated with the semen of the tested bulls are evaluated for easy calving.
  • Participation in the work of international organizations for:
  • cattle recording - International Committee of Animal Recording, ICAR
  • evaluation of bull breeding value - International Bull Evaluation Service, Interbull.
slide12

Dairy cattle recording:

  • registering the origin of animals tested,
  • keeping breeding records,
  • collecting information on dairy and reproductive performance for every cow in the herd,
  • providing breeders with necessary, reliable and professional information to facilitate herd management with regard to economic aspects:
    • specialist counselling in high-quality milk production
    • organization of the fodder base,
    • principles of cow nutrition,
    • reproduction and selection.
slide13

Pigs

  • The boar evaluation and selection programmes are carried out toobtain:
  • boars of maternal and paternal breeds,
  • their crossbreds,
  • and much-demanded breeding lines
  • which are characterized by the:
  • highest breeding value,
  • excellent origin,
  • high productive parameters,
  • tested for a mutation in the stress gene (RYR1) and the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS).
slide14

Horses

  • The herd-books kept by the Polish Horse
  • Breeders Association include:
    • 22,400 mares
    • 3,700 stallions.
  • The current population of horses in Poland: 350,000.
  • Poland is a major exporter of different utility types
  • ofhorses in Europe.
    • slaughter horses (70,000 per year)
    • riding horses,
    • sport horses,
    • breeding horses.
slide15

Sheep

  • “Sheep population improvement programme until 2010” programme (main goals):
  • to stop the decline in the sheep population,
  • to improve the prolificacy and meatiness of sheep,
  • to monitor the population of sheep and the changes it
  • undergoes,
  • to establish foundations for improving the economic
  • efficiency of sheep production.
slide16

Maternal breeds and lines are improved for:

prolificacy, milk yield, maternal ability

Paternal breeds and linesare mainly improved

to increase the growth rate of lambs, carcass meat percentage, and to decrease carcass fatness.

slide17

Goats

  • dairy breeds
  • replacement crossing based on imported bucks of the Boer meat breed (the work is aimed to obtain female Boer herds and,
  • as a result, to produce sires intended for commercial herds exporting slaughter kids).
slide18

Poultry

Pedigree farms:

3 laying hen farms (15 lines of laying hens)

1 ducks farm (4 lines of ducks)

2 goose farms (3 lines of geese).

slide19

Conservation of biodiversity

  • The 75 most valuable species, varieties and lines of animals under conservation include:
  • Polish Red cattle
  • Tarpans (Polish koniks)
  • Hucul horses
  • Wrzosówka sheep
  • Polish Mountain Sheep
  • 10 varieties or breeds of native geese
  • Greenleg Partridgehens
slide23

The conservation of local farm animal breeds is specified in the Rural Development Plan.

Programme:“Support for agri-environmental undertakings and improvement of animal welfare”

Animals of local breeds can complement the herds of other breeds or form separate herds, but the number of animals of the same breed, entered in a herd-book, must be at least:

4 for cows,

3 for mares

10 for sheep

slide25

Organic farming

  • Polish system of inspection and certification scheme:
  • Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development
  • (grants authorisations to certifying bodies)
  • Agriculture and Food Quality Inspection
  • Polish Accreditation Centre.
  • Organic farming in Poland is supported from:
  • national budgets
  • EU budgets
efforts to ensure the high quality of animal products
Efforts to ensure the high quality of animal products
  • limit the risk of contamination
    • microbiological
    • chemical
    • physical
  • protect consumer health
hazards of animal products quality and safety
Contaminants:

mikrobiological

chemical

phisical

environmental contaminants

pedigree farm

reproductive flock

commercial farm

genetic,

sex,

age,

environmental conditions,

rearing system,

feeding,

diseases

transportation

slaughter

processing facility

distribution

consumer handling of the final product.

Hazards of animal productsquality and safety
slide28

Health care and the quality and safety of animal products

  • are supported by a number of legal acts specifying the requirements on:
  • animal health care,
  • infectious disease control,
  • animal identification and registration,
  • animal product hygiene
  • animal welfare.
slide29

Animal identification and registration system

  • animal identifiers (ear tags or tattoos),
  • animal passports,
  • computer database,
  • farm registration books.
  • collected data:
  • date and place of birth, identification number, sex, breed, mother’s identification number, data on animal origin, date of slaughter or death and disposal, information on successive owners.
slide30

Food quality and safety:

  • protection against diseases and infections that are directly or indirectly transmitted between animals and humans
  • programmes for the control of zoonotic diseases
  • programmes for detection and elimination of animal disease centers
  • regulations in the milk, meat and poultry sectors.
  • commercial standards for poultry meat quality
  • hygiene packet for animal food hygiene and official control of animal products for human consumption