LITIGATION SUPPORT SERVICES A Division Of INTERCONTINENTAL MARKETING INVESTIGATIONS INC. San Diego, California Applying Psychological Research to Litigation
Consumer/Industrial Psychologist, USC 1964 43 years consulting /research experience Past V.P. and Board Member of American Marketing Assoc. Founder/CEO of IMI Inc. 1977 Completed over 5,000 Focus Groups, 2,000 Surveys, 300 Secondary Studies Marketing/Research guest Professor at SDSU and UCSD PARTIAL INDUSTRIAL EXPERIENCE LIST Aging/mature markets, agriculture, airlines/aerospace, alcoholic beverages, apparel, appliances, automotive, confectionery, chemicals, community redevelopment, computers/hi-tech hardware and software, construction, real estate, education, employee benefit programs, energy/utilities, financial/banking, foods, gaming, health/beauty aids, household products, health care/medical, human resources, hotels/resorts, insurance, manufacturing, newspapers/magazines, pets, politicians and private interest groups, public safety, public transportation, radio/TV, restaurants. security systems, sporting events, sports and outdoor equipment, student loans, theme parks, telecommunications, tobacco, toys/games, tourism, utilities. Martin M. Buncher
Legal Research/Litigation Support/Expert Witness Testimony Most pertinent to litigation support services are the following: 2006 Heller Ehrman Quinine Sulfate • 2004 Blumberg, Lorber, Nelson – Sexual harassment/Wrongful termination • 2003 Crockett - Trade Dress • 2003 Crockett -Branding • 2003 Fraudulent Advertising - Dechert • 2002 Ed Cross & Associates – Insurance Fraud, toxic mold • 2001 Blumenthal, Ostroff & Markham – Advertising Fraud, Toy Industry
Legal Research/Litigation Support/Expert Witness Testimony-Continued • 1995 Branscomb, DeCicco, Kopelowitz & Quinn – Lease Fraud • 1994 McDowell, Drew, McDowell – S. Cal Edison Lawsuit • 1994 R. Rex Parris – Lucky’s Market Slip & Fall Case • 1993 SureSafe Industries – Trademark/Brand Name • Infringement • 1993 R. Esensten – Insurance Company Failure to Service Claim/Breach of Contract • 1992 R. Esensten – Jury Trial Simulation • 1991 David Sperber – Jury Trial Simulation • 1991 R. Esensten – Jury Trial Simulation • 1989 David Sperber – Jury Trial Simulation/Estate Management Fraud
Legal Research/Litigation Support/Expert Witness Testimony-Continue • 2000 Rose, Klein and Marias – Legal Statute Violation, Candle Industry • 2000 Rosenthal, Allen & Smith - Breach of Contract/Fraud • 2000 Polakovic/San Bernardino County – Murder Case Change of Venue • 2000 James Lyle - GM Fuel Tank Warrantee • 1999 Casey, Gerry, Reed & Schenk – GM Fuel Tank Warrantee • 1999 Freeman, Freeman & Smiley – Insurance Company Wrongful Termination • 1997 Crockett & Fish – Camera Dolly Trade Dress Infringement • 1995 R. Rex Parris – Motorcycle Injury
Profession, Theoretician, Author Copenhagen Business School Stockholm School of Economics and Stockholm University Graduate School of Communication. Honorary Phd. Strategic planning with major advertising agencies (last position as Director of Strategic Planning for Lintas in the U.S) Board Member and Director of the Association for Consumer Research Editorial boards of a number of academic journals, including the Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of Advertising ,The Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, and Psychology and Marketing 35 years experience spans the entire range of advertising and marketing problems Larry Percy
Partial List Of Publications Books • Percy, Larry, J.R. Rossiter and R. Elliott (2001) Strategic Advertising Management, Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. • Percy, Larry (1997) Strategies for Implementing Integrated Marketing Communications, Chicago: NTC Publishing Group. • Percy, Larry, Ed. (1997) Marketing Research That Pays Off Binghamton, New York: Haworth Press. • Rossiter. J.R. and L. Percy (1997) Advertising Communication and Promotion Management New York: McGraw-Hill. • Rossiter, J.R. and L. Percy (1987) Advertising and Promotion Management New York: McGraw-Hill. • Percy, Larry and A. Woodside, Eds. (1983) Advertising and Consumer Psychology Lexington, Mass: Lexington Books. • Percy, Larry and J.R. Rossiter (1980) Advertising Strategy: A Communication Theory Approach New York: Praeger.
Larry Percy Publications • Percy, Larry and J.R. Rossiter (in press) “Measuring Advertising Effectiveness” in M.J. Houston (ed) Handbook of Marketing Research New York: McGraw-Hill. • Rossiter, J.R. and L. Percy (2001) “The a-b-e Model of Benefit Focus in Advertising” in T.J. Reynolds and J.C. Olson (eds) Understanding Consumer Decision Making, Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp 183-214. • Percy, Larry (2001) “Marketing Communication in Evolution” in Admap, February, pp 30-32. • Percy, Larry (2000) “Commentary: Neuro Images of Advertising” Business Strategy Review, Autumn, pp 29-30. • Percy, Larry and J.R. Rossiter (2000) “Building and Managing brands with Traditional Marketing Communication” in Franz-Rudolf Esch (ed.) Moderne Markenführum, Germany: Gables, pp 493-508.
Jury Trial Simulation Voire Dire/Juror Selection Witness Preparation Trial Monitoring Expert Witness Testimony Testing Arguments & Exploring Case Issues Among Jurors & Other Target Groups By: -Qualitative Research -Quantitative Research Litigation Support Tools
JURY TRIAL SIMULATI0N Ad hoc design to fit the case and counsel needs Basics: - jury panel from potential juror pool versus retired judge - client lawyers representing plaintiff/defense (role playing as needed) - witnesses needing rehearsal - suitable research venue w/ recruitment/facilities/audio-video - consultant/researcher for monitoring and investigating juror perceptions and attitudes, developing implications during the simulation
JURY TRIAL SIMULATION • Length designed in proportion to needs, minimum 4 hours, maximum = days? • Cost = $8,000 and up • Timing = week to prepare,immediate results and recommendations • Location = research facility where the jury pool lives • Output = verbal or written report, transcripts QUESTIONS?
Survey Research • Purposes: • To test hypotheses about case issues among designated target groups • To prove or disprove claims made by Plaintiffs and Defendants in Case filings Ultimately generating statistically significant or otherwise reliable information (trend data) covering key issues of people’s perceptions, attitudes and behavior involved in the claims.
Survey Research - Continued • Methods - Face to face (offices, central research locations, trade shows, spectator events, etc.) - Phone (CATI) Centers - Internet
Survey Research - Continued • Procedure (Planning) 1) Determination of specific purpose of the research,I.e., “to prove”, “demonstrate”, “establish”, etc. 2) Delineation of target group(s) to be interviewed 3) Establishment of best method of data collection 4) Selection of appropriate sample size 5)Questionnaire Design
Survey Research - Continued • Procedure (Execution) 6) Interviewing 7) Data Processing 8) Analysis and “report” 9) Declaration 10) Expert Testimony
Survey Research - Continued • Participants in Survey Execution 1) Research experts 2) Specialized Field Operations (CATI, Web, Central locations, etc.) 3) Sample Source 4) Data Processing Operations
Survey Research - Continued • Timing and Costs Both are wide open dependent on resources and case needs Research Costs are generally quoted at a fixed price with a +/- 10% contingency QUESTIONS?
Qualitative Research • Purpose To generate and/or refine HYPOTHESES about the way designated target groups “ perceive”, “ form attitudes about”, and “ behave towards” RELEVANT STIMULI such as: people current/past events social issues weather, religion, philosophies specific case issues -- everything else
Qualitative Research-Continued • Methods • 1) Focus Groups • 2) Individual Interviews 1 = peer pressure, social interaction, moderator influence 2 = individually processed information
Qualitative Research-Continued • Procedure 1) Determination of specific purpose of the research,I.e., “to prove”, “demonstrate”, “establish”, etc. 2) Delineation of target group(s) to be interviewed 3) Development of Moderator/Interviewer guide 4) Schedule and complete interviewing by Psychologist appropriately briefed on case-relevant science 5) Analysis and “report”
Qualitative Research-Continued • Timing and Costs Again, wide open: Depends on number of interviews or group sessions, difficultly of accessing the respondent targets, and the length of the interview instrument/amount of information collected
Proper use of Qualitative & Quantitative Research • Qualitative: - to generate insights - discover the full range of possibilities - formulate hypotheses and discuss possible implications • Quantitative - to show trends, - to test hypotheses - to support statement of facts and implications
Qualitative v. Quantitative Research QUESTIONS?
Voire Dire/Juror Selection • Purpose: To provide an aid in the selection of potential jurists most likely to be positively predisposed towards the client side of the case
Voire Dire/Juror Selection-Continued • Method = Survey Research 1) Development of a set of questions based on case issues designed to reveal relevant juror predispositions, by isolating specific perceptual, attitudinal and behavior tendencies among a sample of those potential jurors 2) Recruitment of a random sample of potential jurors from the actual case venue 3) Administration of the interview (usually possible by CATI system, unless visuals are required) 4) Tabulation, analysis and “report” of findings 5) Psychologist assistance to counsel in final juror selection
Voire Dire/Juror Selection-Continued • Timing and Cost - normally in a week or two - typical survey costs: N = 100 $5,000-$7,000 N = 200 $6,000-$11,000 N = 300 $7,000- $15,000 Costs depend on sample size, number and type of questions (open v. closed –end) asked QUESTIONS?
Witness Preparation Best done in trial simulation circumstances to provide the witness with the look and feel of a potentially hostile environment where pressure will challenge his/her performance
Trial Monitoring Can be only the consultant observing and analyzing, or in some cases, rules permitting, trial observation (live or taped) by a mock jury with debriefings by the consultant similar to jury trial simulation
Expert Witness Testimony Over the years, Martin Buncher and Larry Percy have gained knowledge and experience in almost every market and industry where research has been completed. A partial list of clients served over the years follows:
Advertising Agencies/Public Relations/Communications HBM Creamer Hakuhodo Advertising* H. Silver Jordan, McGrath, Case & Taylor Lintas: USA* Campbell-Ewald* Carter Advertising Johns, Cohen, Pasqualina Phillips-Ramsey Ogilvy & Mather Capener, Matthews & Walcher Lord, Dentsu & Partners Cantor Advertising Parsons & Kearn Franklin & Associates Spear-Hall Communications Nuffer-Smith, Tucker, Inc. Baxter, Gurian & Mazzei BBDO Detroit DFS Dorland Huckaby & Rodriquez McGregor Marketing Della Famina Nelson Communications Stu Mollrich & Associates Irwin Ink TNT Advertising Inter/Media Stoorza Company James Dodds & Co. Arthur I. Rothafel & Associates Sports Marketing* Robert McKim Advertising Maxim Marketing Corporation The St. George Group Foute Cone & Belding Worldwide Dr. Salcher Team MBH* Frank Small & Associates* Kay Communications Kandu Communications Asher/Gould Advertising Marc Advertising Earl Palmer Brown Gallop France* Di Zinno Thompson Harmonics Institute of Canadian Advertising
Automotive Chevrolet Advanta Bridgestone 1-800-CarSearch General Motors* Kawasaki Oldsmobile Chevron USA Toyota* Winston Tire Pontiac Avis Car Rental AC Delco Mercedes Benz* Delco Electronics AC Rochester International* LDF Loffler* SAAB* Audi Lexus Exxon Anheuser-Busch Refuelin' Beer Drinkers of America Hansens Beer Industry Shasta Beverages Schlitz Brewing Co. Chambourcy Heublein OMS Holland Coca Cola Schlitz Interbrew Beverage
Computer/Hi-Tech/Electronics Toro Company Hudson Soft Kyocera Hayes Practical Peripherals Park Place Productions Linear Corp. Consumer Computers Corp. MicroAge Data Base Solutions Data Facts Teac Hitachi Meldac of America* Nintendo Unisys Remington Rand Phonics Game SOFRES-FS&A QuickStart Internet Technology Teckla – Finland* Newpoint HIJK Computer Gift Cards Fiberlink Sage Software Teack Sanyo Sony Hitachi IBM Symantec Telecom Italia
Financial Services Mellon Bank Peat Marwick Main Central Savings Great American Federal Home Federal KMG Main Kurdman Santel Credit Union La Mesa Bank American Savings Bank Wells Fargo Bank Butterfield San Diego Federal Bank of America Security Pacific PeopleFirst.com Scripps Bank Bank of Hawaii United States Treasury Department LoanToLearn Harmonic International Cigna
Food Beech-Nut Tollhouse Lean Cuisine Maxim Marketing/Pocket Pretzel FreshNes Carnation International* Stouffers Korean Tobacco & Gensing Nestles Basic American Frozen Foods Kwai Garlic Taco Bell University Food Living Lean Budget Gourmet FreshChef Cuisine Fresh Tasters Choice Bilmar Turkey Libby's Milk Advisory Board Nori-Nu Tofu Berringer Crosse & Blackwell Los Hermanos Wispride Nescafe Prices Nestea Yo Baby Yogurt
Manufacturing Wooltex International* Hunter Industries Stiffel Lamps Bayer (Silicone)* St. Thomas* Interactive Image Technologies Rainville Tile* Barbara Thomas Enterprises Redi-Tag Nippon Steel* Pacific Southwest Airmotive Stanley Smith Security* Loomis Armored Transport* Main Nickless Ltd.* Atlas/Copco* Kyocera SureSafe Industries BTE Agfa Wagner Die Cut Air Liquide
Restaurant/Fast Food/Supermarket Southland Corp./7-11 Albertson's Supermarkets Kodash Foodmaker/Jack-in-the-Box Ralph's Supermarkets Hungry Hunter Carlos Murphy's Tustin French Quarter Arby's Stuart Anderson's The Italian Oven Restaurants Taco Bell* Season's Cafe Sidney's Australian Grille Social/Political Torrance & Associates The Irvine Company Chapman College Roxani Gillespie University of Southern California City of Irvine City of Inglewood City of Los Angeles The Greater Irvine Industrial League United Way United States Information Agency (USIA) San Diego Jewish Academy Australian Bureau of Industry Economics* NASA Gemological Institute of America D.C. Public Transportation
Travel/Airlines/Tourism Tourism Council of the South Pacific* Asiana Airlines Tourism Australia* Streamline Travel Pacific Southwestern Airlines / USAir ATC Eastern Airlines TravelLand All Nippon Airlines* Lufthansa Mexican Tourism* Continental Airlines Retail/Chain/Franchise FedMart True Value Hardware Sears Serta Mattress Company Supercuts Motorsport* The Center Company Sanyo Tyler Mall PetCo May Stores PaperPak Borgata Mall Cigar America
SUMMARY • Research is a tool to be used for enhanced understanding of the case issues and how to deal with them • It is controllable in terms of timing, cost, and application Intercontinental Marketing Investigations Inc. Litigation Support Division PO Box 2147 Rancho Santa Fe, CA 92067 Buncher@imiesearch.com 858-756-1765