Atherton 2007 Declaration by the Metals Industry on Recycling Principles
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Atherton 2007 Declaration by the Metals Industry on Recycling Principles. Q: Does the metals industry support metal recycling?. A: Yes, metal recycling has environmental, economic and social value. Q: Do metals typically have limited recycling potential?.

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Atherton 2007 Declaration by the Metals Industry on Recycling Principles

Q: Does the metals industry support metal recycling?

A: Yes, metal recycling has environmental, economic and social value.

Q: Do metals typically have limited recycling potential?

A: No, they can be recycled over and over again.

Q: Is there oversupply or undersupply of metal scrap?

A: Undersupply, due to growing metal demand and long product lifetimes.

Q: Does the metals industry think specifying recycled content is useful?

A: For materials that would otherwise be incinerated or landfilled.

Q: Does the metals industry think specifying recycled metal content is useful?

A: No, it may create market distortions and inefficiencies.

Q: Where do the market distortions and inefficiencies come from?

A: Redirecting recycled feedstock and unnecessary transportation.

Q: What should life cycle management of steel focus on instead?

A: End-of-life recycling.

Q: Why is that article in the International Journal of LCA?

A: Its statements have a big impact on how recycling should be modeled in LCAs.


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BOF Recycling Principles

761

(64%)

Scrap

640

generated

Scrap

440

consumed

69%

EAF

381

(33%)

Global crude steel production (in MMT)

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000


Slide3 l.jpg

BOF Recycling Principles

540

(47%)

EAF

602

(53%)

Global crude steel production (in MMT)

1200

1000

800

600

Scrap

640

generated

400

100% consumed

200

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000


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GHG emissions of virgin and recycled material production (Kg CO2eq / kg)

Source: EPA (2006) Solid Waste Management and Greenhouse Gases: A Life-Cycle Assessment of Emissions and Sinks, EPA 530-R-06-004



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A consequential assessment of open-loop recycling products

Before change

1

1

Primaryproduction

Use A

1 unit

Disposal

Existing

Scrap market

Scrapmarket

Secondaryproduction

Collection

D=100

S=100

Primaryproduction

Other uses

200 units

Disposal

100

100


Slide7 l.jpg

Collection products

ΔX=+1

Increasing end-of-life recycling of product A by one unit

A consequential assessment of open-loop recycling

Scrap supply

increases

0

1

Primaryproduction

Use A

1 unit

Disposal

Scrapmarket

Secondaryproduction

Collection

D=100

S=100

Primaryproduction

Other uses

200 units

Disposal

100

100


Slide8 l.jpg

A consequential assessment of open-loop recycling products

Scrap supply

increases

0

1

Primaryproduction

Use A

1 unit

Disposal

Scrap use

increases

Collection

ΔX=+1

Scrapmarket

Secondaryproduction

Collection

S=100

D=100.6

Primaryproduction

Other uses

200 units

Disposal

99.4

100

Increasing end-of-life recycling of product A by one unit

  • displaces 0.6 units of primary material


Slide9 l.jpg

A consequential assessment of open-loop recycling products

Scrap supply

increases

0

1

Primaryproduction

Use A

1 unit

Disposal

Scrap use

increases

Collection

ΔX=+1

Scrapmarket

Scrap supply

decreases

Secondaryproduction

Collection

D=100.6

S=99.6

Primaryproduction

Other uses

200 units

Disposal

99.4

100.4

Increasing end-of-life recycling of product A by one unit

  • displaces 0.6 units of primary material

  • displaces 0.4 units of other scrap


Slide10 l.jpg

A consequential assessment of open-loop recycling products

After change

0

1

Primaryproduction

Use A

1 unit

Disposal

Collection

ΔX=+1

Scrapmarket

  • Additional scrap can

  • increase recycling

  • decrease collection

Secondaryproduction

Collection

D=100.6

S=99.6

Primaryproduction

Other uses

200 units

Disposal

99.4

100.4


Slide11 l.jpg

A consequential assessment of open-loop recycling products

Before change

1

1

Primaryproduction

Use A

1 unit

Disposal

Existing

Scrap market

Scrapmarket

Secondaryproduction

Collection

D=100

S=100

Primaryproduction

Other uses

200 units

Disposal

100

100


Slide12 l.jpg

Secondary productsproduction

ΔX= + 1

Increasing recycled content of product A by one unit

A consequential assessment of open-loop recycling

Scrap demand

increases

1

0

Primaryproduction

Use A

1 unit

Disposal

Scrapmarket

Secondaryproduction

Collection

D=100

S=100

Primaryproduction

Other uses

200 units

Disposal

100

100


Slide13 l.jpg

A consequential assessment of open-loop recycling products

Scrap use

increases

1

0

Primaryproduction

Use A

1 unit

Disposal

Scrap supply

increases

Secondaryproduction

ΔX= + 1

Scrapmarket

Secondaryproduction

Collection

D=100

S=100.4

Primaryproduction

Other uses

200 units

Disposal

100

99.6

Increasing recycled content of product A by one unit

  • increases scrap collection by 0.4 units


Slide14 l.jpg

A consequential assessment of open-loop recycling products

Scrap demand

increases

1

0

Primaryproduction

Use A

1 unit

Disposal

Scrap supply

increases

Secondaryproduction

ΔX= + 1

Scrapmarket

Scrap use

decreases

Secondaryproduction

Collection

D=99.4

S=100.4

Primaryproduction

Other uses

200 units

Disposal

100.6

99.6

Increasing recycled content of product A by one unit

  • increases primary production by 0.6 units

  • increases scrap collection by 0.4 units


Slide15 l.jpg

A consequential assessment of open-loop recycling products

After change

1

0

Primaryproduction

Use A

1 unit

Disposal

Secondaryproduction

ΔX= + 1

Scrapmarket

Secondaryproduction

Collection

D=99.4

S=100.4

Primaryproduction

Other uses

200 units

Disposal

100.6

99.6


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A consequential assessment of open-loop recycling products

1

0

Primaryproduction

Use A

1 unit

Disposal

Scrap market clears

Secondaryproduction

ΔX= + 1

But to what extent does

increased scrap use

Scrapmarket

Secondaryproduction

Collection

increase supply

ΔD=?

ΔS=?

or decrease

scrap collection?

Primaryproduction

Other uses

200 units

Disposal

One approach is to use price elasticity of demand and price elasticity of supply:

Source: Ekvall T, Resources Conservation & Recycling 2000, 29, 91-109


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A consequential assessment of open-loop recycling products

Changes in scrap flow change scrap price, a changed scrap price changes scrap flows

Scrap market clears


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Some elasticities from literature products

Predicted change in scrap

demand ΔD supply ΔS

Source: Palmer K, Sigman H, Walls M, J Environ Econ Mngmnt 1997, 33, 128-150


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Some Notes on Eco-labels products

There are 3 types of eco-labels:

Type 1: Voluntary, multiple-criteria based third party program that awards a license which authorizes the use of environmental labels on products indicating overallenvironmental preferability of a products within a particular product category basedon life cycle considerations.

ISO 14024:1999

Type 2: Self-declared environmental claims.

ISO 14021:1999

Type 3: Environmental product declaration (EPD). Quantified environmental data for a product with pre-set categories of parameters set by a qualified third party, based on the ISO14040 series of standards (LCA), and verified by a qualified third party.

ISO/TR 14025:2000


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Electronic product environmental assessment tool (IEEE) products

Appliances, buildings, etc. (EPA and DOE)

Forest Stewardship Council

Environmental Choice Ecologo (Canadian Government)

Environmental Choice (Australia)


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Eco Flower (European Commission DG Environment ) products

Nordic swan (Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Iceland)

Blue Angel (Germany, Federal Environment Agency)

Eco Mark (Japan)

http://www.globalecolabelling.net


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Terms commonly used in self-declared environmental claims products

  • Compostable

  • Degradable/biodegradable

  • Reduced energy consumption / resource use / water consumption

  • Recyclable

  • Recycled content/material (pre-consumer, post-consumer)

  • Reusable/refillable

  • Waste reduction

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) definition:

“Biodegradable plastic: a degradable plastic in which the degradation results from the action of naturally occurring microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and algae”.


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  • European Standard for biodegradability is EN 13432 (2000): products

  • Biodegradation (conversion into CO2 by microorganisms): over 90% compared with cellulose in 6 months under conditions of controlled composting using respirometric methods (ISO14855)

  • Disintegration (fragmentation and loss of visibility): over 90% in 3 months (ISO FDIS 16929)

  • Ecotoxicity: test results from aquatic and terrestrial organisms (Daphnia magna, worm test, germination test) as for reference compost

  • Absence of hazardous chemicals (included in the reference list)


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Speaker Monday, April 27, 11:00-12:15, BH1424: products

Jill Dumain Director Environmental Analysis, Patagonia Inc.

Reading for Monday, April 27:

Chouinard Y, Brown M (1997) Going Organic, JIE 1(1)

Posted on course website as Chouinard & Brown 1997


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