Introduction to Computers - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Introduction to Computers

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  1. Introduction toComputers

  2. A World of Computers • What is computer literacy? • Knowledge and understanding of computers and their uses • Computers are everywhere

  3. What Is a Computer? Processes data into information Data that is organized, meaningful, and useful Acceptsdata Raw facts, figures, and symbols Produces and stores results • How is a computer defined? • Electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory

  4. What Is a Computer? • What is the information processing cycle? • Input • Process • Output • Storage • Communication

  5. The Components of a Computer • What is an input device? • Hardware used to enter data and instructions

  6. The Components of a Computer • What is an output device? • Hardware that conveys information to a user

  7. The Components of a Computer Next • What is the system unit? • Box-like case containing electronic components used to process data p. 8 Fig. 1-3

  8. The Components of a Computer Next • What are two main components on the motherboard? Central Processing Unit (CPU) Also called a processor Carries out instructions that tell computer what to do Memory Temporary holding place for data and instructions p. 8

  9. The Components of a Computer • What is storage? • Holds data, instructions, and information for future use Storage media • Physical material on which data, instructions, and information are stored Storage device • Records and retrieves items to and from a storage medium

  10. The Components of a Computer • What isstorage media? Digitalcameras Portable, thin memory cards used in: Handheldcomputers

  11. The Components of a Computer • What is a floppy disk? • Thin, circular, flexible disk enclosed in rigid plastic shell • A USB flash drive is portable, and has much greater storage capacity

  12. The Components of a Computer • What is a flash drive? • Provides much greater storage capacity than a floppy disk or Zip® disk • Small and lightweight enough to be transported on a keychain or in a pocket

  13. The Components of a Computer • What is a hard disk? • Provides much greater storage capacity than a floppy disk or USB flash drive • Housed inside the system unit

  14. The Components of a Computer • What is a compact disc? • Flat, round, portable metal disc • CD-ROM • CD-RW • DVD-ROM • DVD+RW

  15. Why Is a Computer So Powerful? ReliabilityandConsistency Storage Speed Accuracy Communications • What makes a computer powerful?

  16. Networks and the Internet Satellites Cables Enables a connection between computers Telephone lines Cellular radio One type is a modem • What is a network? • Collection of computers and devices connected together Communications Device Communications Media

  17. Networks and the Internet Next • What are the reasons to network? To share Resources Hardware devices Software programs To save time and money Data Information p. 10

  18. Networks and the Internet • What is a server? • Manages the resources on a network • A client accesses the resources on the server

  19. Networks and the Internet • What is the Internet? • Worldwide collection of networks that connects millions of computers

  20. Networks and the Internet • Why do users access the Internet? • Communications • Information • Shopping • Banking and Investing • Classes • Entertainment

  21. Networks and the Internet • What is the Web? • Billions of documents, called Web pages, available to anyone connected to the Internet A Web site is a collection of related Web pages A Web page contains text, graphics, sound, video, and links to other Web pages You can share information by creating Web pages or posting photos on a photo community

  22. Computer Software • How do you install a software program? • A program is a series of instructions that tells the computer what to do

  23. Computer Software Next • What is a graphical user interface (GUI)? • Allows you to interact with the software using graphics and icons • Controls how you enter data and how the screen displays information p. 14 Fig. 1-14

  24. Computer Software • What issystem software? • Programs that control the operations of the computer and its devices Operating System (OS)is a set of programs that coordinates all activities among computer hardware devices and allows users to run application software Utility Programsallow the user to perform maintenance-type tasks usually related to managing a computer, its devices or its programs

  25. Computer Software • What isapplication software? • Programs that perform specific tasks for users Word Processing Spreadsheet Database Presentation Graphics

  26. Computer Software Javascript program Resulting Internet application • What is aprogrammer? • Someone who developsapplication or system software • Programmer writesinstructions todirect computer toprocess data intoinformation

  27. Categories of Computers Midrange servers Supercomputers Mainframe computers Personal computers (desktop) Mobile computersand mobile devices What are the categories of computers?

  28. Personal Computers • PC and compatibles use the Windows operating system • Apple Macintosh uses the Macintosh operating system (Mac OS) Click to view Web Link,click Chapter 1, Click Web Linkfrom left navigation, then click Personal Computers below Chapter 1 Next • What are the two most popular series of personal computers? p. 19 Figs. 1-18–1-19

  29. Personal Computers Next • What is adesktop computer? • Designed so all of the components fit on or under a desk or table p. 19 Fig. 1-18

  30. Personal Computers • What is anotebook computer? • Portable, small enough to fit on your lap • Also called a laptop computer • Generally more expensive than a desktop computer

  31. Handheld Computers • What is atablet PC? • Resembles a letter-sized slate • Allows you to write on the screen using a digital pen • Especially useful for taking notes

  32. Handheld Computers • What are Web-enabled handheld computers? • Allow you to check e-mail and access the Internet • Web-enabled telephone is a “smart phone”

  33. Handheld Computers Small enough to fit in your hand Used by mobile employees such as meter readers and delivery people • What is ahandheld computer?

  34. Handheld Computers • What is apersonal digital assistant (PDA)? • Provides personal organizer functions • Calendar • Appointment book • Address book • Calculator • Notepad

  35. Servers • What types of servers are there? Midrange serverPowerful, large computer that supports up to a few thousand computers MainframeVery powerful, expensive computer that supports thousands of computers SupercomputerThe fastest, most powerful, most expensive computer. Used for applications requiring complex mathematical calculations

  36. Elements of an Information System • What are information system elements? • People • Procedures • Data • Software • Hardware

  37. Examples of Computer Usage • What are five categories of computer users?

  38. Examples of Computer Usage • What software is available for a home user?

  39. Examples of Computer Usage • What software is available for a small office/home office (SOHO) user? • Local area network (LAN) • Productivity software • Specialty software • Web usage • E-mail

  40. Examples of Computer Usage • What is available for a mobile user? • Hardware • Software • Productivity • Presentation • Personal information manager

  41. Examples of Computer Usage • What are the needs of the large business user? Public kiosk Web access Telecommuting Network Productivity software Scheduling

  42. Examples of Computer Usage • What are the needs of a power user? • Speed and large amounts of storage • Types of power users • Engineers • Architects • Desktop publishers • Graphic artists

  43. Computer Applications in Society • What are some examples of computer applications in society? • Education • Finance • Government • Healthcare • Science • Publishing • Travel • Industry